Petroleum products consumption internationally gallops ahead. The world’s top climate scientists in early October 2018 declared keeping Earth’s temperature rise to 2 degrees Celsius – per the Paris agreement – is no longer sufficient. Instead, the U.N. climate change experts from 40 countries said unless warming of 1.5 C (or 2.7 degrees Fahrenheit) above pre-industrial levels is prevented, billions of people will face social and natural dangers such as rising seas, melting Arctic ice, and massive agricultural, industrial, and economic damage. Speakers, from left, are Arun Majumdar, Ph.D., director, Precourt Institute for Energy, Jay Precourt professor and professor of mechanical engineering and of photon science, Stanford University; Kendra Kuhl, Ph.D., co-founder and chief technology officer, Opus 12; Sonya Vial, team lead of new energies research and technology, Shell; Roger Aines, Ph.D., energy program chief scientist, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; and George Peridas, Ph.D., senior scientist, Climate and Clean Energy Program, Natural Resources Defense Council, as moderator. Churchill Club CEO Karen Tucker made the introductions.