• Evolution of Music Chapter 1: Origin of Instruments

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    The music is always related to the cognitive capabilities of humans. We searched about how evolved pieces of music in Homo sapiens history. So, scientists asked about that, what was the music used for? There are several hypotheses: the first one, this was part of religious rituals. The second one, related to recreation, the third one, motivational activities, the fourth one, identification with a group, fifth one, communication and coordination with that human group. And last one, a tool for hunting. Molecular anthropologists found out oldest evidence about music, let's start with wind instruments, see them:

    Germany, this is similar to flutes which is belonging to wind instruments, found out by anthropologists in Hohle Fels, Germany, excavations was in the summer of 2008, these flutes dated age between 35-43 thousand years.

    Two flutes dated to the Early Aurignacian 42-43 thousand years ago., published in 2012. One was shaped from a swan’s ulna bone. It is 12 cm long but thought to be 17 cm long originally. It has 3 holes and produce 4 notes.

    It is a fragment of the femur of a cave bear, pierced with three spaced holes. Age 40 thousand years. One flute found in 1995.

    A phalangeal whistle was found in an Aurignacian level, dated to 30-34 Ka. Also from this cave is a fragment of flute from the Magdalenian period.

    They were published in 1991. 22 fragments of flutes made from swan wing bones, 8 of them are quite complete. Dated to between 26-32 thousand years.

    As percu ssion instruments the oldest evidence may be found in the archaeological site of Ukraine, Mezin, they are dated to 24 Ka. This is a set of mammoth bones scapula and femur painted with red ochre and a reindeer antler hammer, with signs of repetitive surface damage on all of them. Some interpret these bones as musical instruments.

    And this one dated to 13 Ka which is a string instrument found in Trois-Frères cave, France.

    Dated to 9 Ka found in Jiahu, China

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    Ride of the Valkyries by Richard Wagner

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