Dominique Foray is Full Professor at the Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) and holds the Chair of Economics and Management of Innovation (CEMI). He is a member of the National Research Council (Switzerland); the Advisory Board of the Swiss Economic Institute (KOF); and a foreign member of the Center of Capitalism and Society (Columbia University, New York). He is also a new member of the Expert Commission for Research and Innovation (E-FI) of Germany. From 2008 to 2011, he served as chairman of the expert group “Knowledge for Growth”. This is during his service as member of this Group that he developed the concept of smart specialisation (together with P.A. David and B. Hall) that is now a key policy mechanism of the EU (cohesion policy). He is also president of the advisory board of the S3-4AlpClusters project.