• Cellular Energetics (Intro)

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    Sqadia video is the demonstration of Cellular Energetics. A transmembrane proton concentration gradient and a voltage gradient, collectively called the proton-motive force, are generated during photosynthesis and the aerobic oxidation of carbon compounds in mitochondria and aerobic bacteria. In chemiosmotic coupling, a proton-motive force powers an energy-requiring process such as ATP synthesis. The glycolytic pathway by which glucose is degraded to pyruvic acid, the two reactions consume ATP, forming ADP and phosphorylated sugars; two generate ATP from ADP by substrate-level phosphorylation; and one yields NADH by reduction of NAD. In anaerobic versus aerobic metabolism of glucose, the ultimate fate of pyruvate formed during glycolysis depends on the presence or absence of oxygen. In the formation of pyruvate from glucose, one molecule of NAD is reduced to NADH for each molecule of pyruvate formed. In the absence of oxygen, two electrons are transferred from each NADH molecule to an acceptor molecule to regenerate NAD. In the presence of oxygen, pyruvate is transported into mitochondria. First it is converted by pyruvate dehydrogenase into one molecule of CO2 and one of acetic acid.

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