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Published on Jun 5, 2010
video has been updated, please refer to https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MxkYa... Ion Torrent pairs semiconductor technology with a simple sequencing chemistry that is based on a well-characterized biochemical process. In nature, when a nucleotide is incorporated into a strand of DNA by a polymerase, a hydrogen ion is released as a byproduct. Ion Torrent uses a high-density array of micro-machined wells to perform this biochemical process in a massively parallel way. Each well holds a different DNA template. Beneath the wThis ells is an ion-sensitive layer and beneath that a proprietary Ion sensor. Here's how the technology is used to call a base: If a nucleotide, for example a C, is added to a DNA template and is then incorporated into a strand of DNA, a hydrogen ion will be released. The charge from that ion will change the pH of the solution, which can be detected by our proprietary ion sensor. Our sequencer—essentially the world's smallest solid-state pH meter—will call the base, going directly from chemical information to digital information. The Ion Personal Genome Machine (PGM™) sequencer then sequentially floods the chip with one nucleotide after another. If the next nucleotide that floods the chip is not a match. No voltage change will be recorded and no base will be called. If there are two identical bases on the DNA strand, the voltage will be double, and the chip will record two identical bases called. Because this is direct detection—no scanning, no cameras, no light—each nucleotide incorporation is recorded in seconds.