Help with Histology





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Published on Jan 28, 2011

How to approach histology for Human Anatomy students. Using a key will help get you through it! Add some penguin fairy dust will help too!

There are lots of histology keys out there, but the one I showed in the video is here: http://www.penguinprof.com/uploads/8/...

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Tissue in the human body:

Epithelial: Is made of cells arranged in a continuous sheet with one or more layers, has apical & basal surfaces.

A basement membrane is the attachment between the basal surface of the cell & the underlying connective tissue.

Two types of epithelial tissues: (1) Covering & lining epithelia and (2) Glandular Epithelium.

The number of cell layers & the shape of the cells in the top layer can classify epithelium. Simple Epithelium - one cell layer Stratified epithelium - two or more cell layers Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium - When cells of an epithelial tissue are all anchored to the basement Membrane but not all cells reach the apical surface. Glandular Epithelium -- (1) Endocrine: Release hormones directly into the blood stream and (2) Exocrine - Secrete into ducts.

Connective: contains many different cell types including: fibroblasts, macrophages, mast cells, and adipocytes. Connective Tissue Matrix is made of two materials: ground substance - proteins and polysaccharides, fiber -- reticular, collagen and elastic.

Classification of Connective Tissue: Loose Connective - fibers & many cell types in gelatinous matrix, found in skin, & surrounding blood vessels, nerves, and organs. Dense Connective - Bundles of parallel collagen fibers& fibroblasts, found in tendons& ligaments. Cartilage - Cartilage is made of collagen & elastin fibers embedded in a matrix glycoprotein & cells called chondrocytes, which was found in small spaces. Cartilage has three subtypes: Hyaline cartilage -- Weakest, most abundant type, Found at end of long bones, & structures like the ear and nose, Elastic cartilage- maintains shape, branching elastic fibers distinguish it from hyaline and Fibrous Cartilage - Strongest type, has dense collagen & little matrix, found in pelvis, skull & vertebral discs.

Muscle: is divided into 3 categories, skeletal, cardiac and smooth. Skeletal Muscle -- voluntary, striated, striations perpendicular to the muscle fibers and it is mainly found attached to bones. Cardiac Muscle -- involuntary, striated, branched and has intercalated discs Smooth Muscle -- involuntary, nonstriated, spindle shaped and is found in blood vessels & the GI tract.

Nervous: Consists of only two cell types in the central nervous system (CNS) & peripheral nervous system (PNS): Neurons - Cells that convert stimuli into electrical impulses to the brain, and Neuroglia -- supportive cells. Neurons -- are made up of cell body, axon and dendrites. There are 3 types of neurons: Motor Neuron -- carry impulses from CNS to muscles and glands, Interneuron - interpret input from sensory neurons and end responses to motor neurons Sensory Neuron -- receive information from environment and transmit to CNS. Neuroglia -- is made up of astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, ependymal cells and microglia in the CNS, and schwann cells and satellite cells in the PNS.

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