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Lungfish walking sm02

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Published on Dec 12, 2011

Lungfish walking: Ancient Fish Takes a Walk

Movie S2. This movie shows the lungfish P. annectens locomoting underwater in ventral view. Note that the pelvic fins begin by alternating, then make
a discrete transition to a synchronous gait. This movie corresponds to Figs. 1B and 2 B and D. Each square of the grid in this movie is 1 cm.

- Ancient Fish Takes a Walk
http://news.sciencemag.org/sciencenow...

- A Small Step for Lungfish, a Big Step for the Evolution of Walking
The eel-like body and scrawny "limbs" of the African lungfish would appear to make it an unlikely innovator for locomotion. But its improbable walking behavior, newly described by University of Chicago scientists, redraws the evolutionary route of life on Earth from water to land.
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/...

Reference
Behavioral evidence for the evolution of walking and bounding before terrestriality in sarcopterygian fishes
PNAS December 12, 2011, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1118669109
http://www.pnas.org/content/early/201...

Abstract
Tetrapods evolved from sarcopterygian fishes in the Devonian and were the first vertebrates to colonize land. The locomotor component of this transition can be divided into four major events: terrestriality, the origins of digited limbs, solid substrate-based locomotion, and alternating gaits that use pelvic appendages as major propulsors. As the sister group to tetrapods, lungfish are a morphologically and phylogenetically relevant sarcopterygian taxon for understanding the order in which these events occurred. We found that a species of African lungfish (Protopterus annectens) uses a range of pelvic fin-driven, tetrapod-like gaits, including walking and bounding, in an aquatic environment, despite having a derived limb endoskeleton and primitively small, muscularly supported pelvis. Surprisingly, given these morphological traits, P. annectens also lifts its body clear of the substrate using its pelvic fins, an ability thought to be a tetrapod innovation. Our findings suggest that some fundamental features of tetrapod locomotion, including pelvic limb gait patterns and substrate association, probably arose in sarcopterygians before the origin of digited limbs or terrestriality. It follows that the attribution of some of the nondigited Devonian fossil trackways to limbed tetrapods may need to be revisited.

Supporting Information Video
- Movie S1. This movie shows the lungfish Protopterus annectens locomoting underwater in ventral view. Note that the pelvic fins alternate, and the pectoral
fins do not move rhythmically. This movie corresponds to Figs. 1A and 2 A and C. Each square of the grid in this movie is 1 cm.
http://www.pnas.org/content/suppl/201...

- Movie S2. This movie shows the lungfish P. annectens locomoting underwater in ventral view. Note that the pelvic fins begin by alternating, then make
a discrete transition to a synchronous gait. This movie corresponds to Figs. 1B and 2 B and D. Each square of the grid in this movie is 1 cm.
http://www.pnas.org/content/suppl/201...

- Movie S3. This movie shows the lungfish P. annectens locomoting underwater in simultaneous lateral and ventral views. In lateral view, the lifting of the
body is evident, as is the range of motion of the pelvic fin, including movement in front of and above the articulation with the body. Each square of the grid in
this movie is 1 cm.
http://www.pnas.org/content/suppl/201...

- Movie S4. This movie shows the lungfish P. annectens locomoting underwater in simultaneous lateral and ventral views. Here we show an example of the
effectiveness of the pelvic fins in lifting the body. Each square of the grid in this video is 1 cm.
http://www.pnas.org/content/suppl/201...

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