Conditions on an intensive zero grazing dairy farm.
Cows kept indoors have less opportunity to act naturally and exercise. Poor ventilation and high humidity increase the risk and spread of infection. These factors are likely to have an adverse effect on their health.
Hard concrete flooring can cause foot damage and is more painful for lame cows to stand and walk on. Zero-grazing systems have been linked to increased lameness.
Some herds, including a number in the UK, are kept on bare slatted floors. These are uncomfortable for the cows to walk, stand or lie down on.