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Uploaded on Sep 8, 2009
From accurate measurements of the statistics of the observed jump lengths and of the waiting times between successive jumps, Raoul van Gastel deduced that the mobility of the indium atoms is caused by the rapid, two-dimensional diffusion of a very low density of monatomic vacancies (missing copper atoms), through the first copper layer. Due to their ultrahigh diffusion rate, these vacancies remain "invisible" for the STM at room temperature. The whole incorporation and diffusion process is illustrated in the ball movie.