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Published on Dec 11, 2006
In this video from the Submarine Ring of Fire 2006 expedition, molten sulfur and volcanic gases are seen bubbling out of a vent along the far wall of Sulfur Cauldron, keeping the partially crusted surface of the pond undulating. Sometimes the heaving was so great that pieces of crust near the vent broke off, tip on end, and were pulled downward by the convecting currents in the pond.
The Jason remotely operated vehicle is operated by Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution as part of the National Deep Submergence Facility which is jointly funded by the National Science Foundation, the Office of Naval Research, and NOAA.
Video courtesy of Submarine Ring of Fire 2006 Exploration, NOAA Vents Program, NOAA-OER.