LAUSA VIRTUAL PPL(A) COURSEWORK -- LESSON 09 -- FAA KSFO
AIR NAVIGATION & CROSS COUNTRY PREPARATION FLIGHT -- KING AIR 350
• Plan and fly cross country -- San Francisco to Minden (KMEV)
• VFR, Special VFR & IFR
• VOR & NDB Tracking
• Fuel burn Calculations
FLIGHT TIME 1H 05MINS
In this lesson your instructor will do most of the flying. You will be the P2S handling communications with Air Traffic Control and also responsible for the navigation instruments as instructed by the Captain. VPPL-09.
Today you will fly in a King Air 350 twin engine aircraft.
Many a student pilot has planned a cross country route exercise, flown to that destination and then beamed confidently at the instructor on board that they were at their destination only to be told that they were more than 10 miles off course and that the little village down there was not the one they thought that it was - now get us back home!
There are quite a number of both simple and complex tools available for use by a pilot to plan the journey. Some of the most common are -
1.An up to date 1:500.000 or 1:250.000 aviation chart of the area to be navigated.
2.The human thumb! If the thumb is placed onto a 1:500.000 chart the distance measured from the tip of the thumb to the first bend is approximately 10 nautical miles and can be used a rough guide to estimating distances on the chart. This also means that if the estimated ground speed is known then the leg time can be estimated i.e. 10 miles at 120 Knots equals 5 minutes.
3.Rulers calibrated to measure distances in nautical miles on 1:250.000 or 1:500.000 charts. Some are also calibrated for multiple standards.
4.Protractor of various shapes and sizes used to measure track angles on charts.
5.Flight computer - a mechanical device used to provide a wide variety of calculations such as speed, time, wind, drift etc.
Some of the basics of navigation skills needed involve making a flight plan, using dead reckoning and map reading.
Like the NDB / ADF there are several applications for the VOR in light aircraft cross country VMC navigation. The applications briefly described below will be detailed in the 'Using the VOR' module.
Homing & tracking to a VOR. Even with a crosswind component tracking toward a VOR is quite simple, rotate the OBS until the CDI is centred and TO is indicated, turn onto that magnetic heading and then just keep the CDI centred and you will track more or less direct to the VOR.
Tracking from a VOR. Rotate the OBS to the required track [radial], ensure FROM is indicated, turn onto that magnetic heading and just keep the CDI centred and you will maintain the track.
Position fixes. If two VORs are in range then the bearing from each can be ascertained, roughly plotted on the chart [after converting to true bearings] and the aircraft position will be close to the intersection point of the LOPs. Alternatively a VOR bearing and a NDB bearing can be used or a VOR bearing and a line feature on the chart, the latter technique being the most frequently used.
Running fix / distance from VOR. The 1-in-60 rule can be applied when the aircraft is within range of a transmitter by turning the aircraft so that the station is abeam and then measuring the degrees traversed against time, as in the NDB running fix application above. The advantage with the VOR is that the CDI needle indicates the degrees traversed. As in the NDB application the position fix is the distance along the second radial from the beacon.
LOG BOOK ENTRY
N973XE DANIEL HARVEY P.U.T. KSFO KMEV 01:01:00 02:18:00 01:17:00 EX 18A, EX18B 1 Good understanding of VOR navigation. Introduction to NDB tracking. Good Performance, general aircraft handling good and smooth. Good airmanship.
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