// read the paper Impacto: Simulating Physical Impact by Combining Tactile Stimulation with Electrical Muscle Stimulation, UIST 2015.
//abstract We present impacto, a device designed to render the haptic sensation of hitting and being hit in virtual reality. The key idea that allows the small and light impacto device to simulate a strong hit is that it decomposes the stimulus: it renders the tactile aspect of being hit by tapping the skin using a solenoid; it adds impulse to the hit by thrusting the user’s arm backwards using electrical muscle stimulation. The device is self-contained, wireless, and small enough for wearable use, and thus leaves the user unencumbered and able to walk around freely in a virtual environment. The device is of generic shape, allowing it to also be worn on legs so as to enhance the experience of kicking, or merged into props, such as a baseball bat. We demonstrate how to assemble multiple impacto units into a simple haptic suit. Participants of our study rated impacts simulated using impacto’s combination of a solenoid hit and electrical muscle stimulation as more realistic than either technique in isolation.