This course will provide an introduction to the fundamentals behind the equilibrium and time-dependent response of existing and emerging chemistries of Li-ion battery materials. Effects of material selection and processing on the performance and reliability are presented as a means to develop conceptual guidelines to understand and improve battery designs. Example applications such as intercalation, SEI, and dendrite growth are presented. Integration of experimental microstructural aspects to coarse-graining measured properties, such as porosity, tortuosity and its associated reactivity, and classic and emerging battery architectures are presented. Principles summarizing the response of battery architectures are formulated and applied to propose battery design guidelines, to review existing porous electrode theory descriptions, and to summarize the current state-of-the-art of battery technology and its associated metrology.