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Uploaded on Oct 16, 2011
We developed novel materials assembly process to mimic complex biological structures with tunable optical, mechanical and biological functions. In this movie, we assembled the phage, bacteria-attaching viruses, (model system used for this study) into large area films by creating an apparatus to vertically pull substrates from a soup of viral solution at precisely controlled speeds. As the substrates were pulled, evaporation proceeded fastest near the air-liquid-solid contact line resulting in local accumulation and deposition of phage on the substrate at the meniscus. By controlling the pulling speed and viral concentration, we can produce diverse hierarchically-ordered structures with functions closely mimic the complex biological tissues, such as cornea, skins, and bones.