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change a sine wave into a square wave (duty cycle) 50 Hz - 500 KHz

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Published on Sep 15, 2011

How to change a sine wave into a square wave. The transistor is set in its non linear mode by P1, the voltage divider with the node to the base from the (bipolar) transistor. I also found that the input level from the sine wave has an effect on the waveform and the duty cycle. Of course the transistor properties play a role (datasheet), they decide whether the transistor is able to swich quickly and -thus- is able to create a sharp sine wave with sharp slopes. The BC 547 (mesa transistor) works good up to 10 MHz. Almost all NPN silicon mesa transistors (Hfe or Beta approx. 300) work properly with this schematic, so experiment! You don't have to buy components, salvage them from old electronic equipment. Much more information in my books, available on the internet and on the Lulu website (author: Ko Tilman).

LINKS TO INFORMATIVE & GENERAL VIDEOS ABOUT ELECTRONICS
What do you need for an electronic lab? https://youtu.be/v503bmymCWw
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Elementary electronics, the bipolar transistor part 2 https://youtu.be/maGOrqh_5-Q
Elementary electronics: coils https://youtu.be/Lbb5nvlY0TE
Elementary electronics: how to damage a bipolar transistor immediately (VERY important) https://youtu.be/VkeNKFqgsko
The most important properties from bipolar transistors https://youtu.be/-mTjz4E5ua8
Prevent transistor leads from breaking https://youtu.be/iEe37oz4tww
Combining NPN and PNP transistors in 1 circuit https://youtu.be/jfchBvkM4YA
How to make a standard NPN Darlington https://youtu.be/D_WzRkFCCyo
What to do with a transistor Darlington https://youtu.be/FrT395Nf6HI
How to drive a relay by means of a transistor or Darlington https://youtu.be/R7cvddqVn18
Discriminating European transistor types https://youtu.be/LnpdBI3kJOE
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Passive diode testing part 2 (capacitance-barrier layer) https://youtu.be/oKIcbubaUWw
Point contact diodes https://youtu.be/Hgxm37foGww
Electron tubes, some basics https://youtu.be/5a0NnfjGQw0
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Oscillators, how they can confuse you and disguise https://youtu.be/SQpTrM9l0Sc
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L-C filter/transistor and how to create useful waveforms https://youtu.be/wV41_FZ9eGs
Changing/restoring waveforms with a R-C or L-C filter/differentiator-integrator
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How to make a voltage doubler, part 2 https://youtu.be/q64Mmrmw7CU
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More links to video’s from all kinds of electronics are in my channel trailer “Radiofun232 on You Tube” in the “comments” section.

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