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Published on May 4, 2015
We propose mobile force feedback by eliminating motors and instead actuating the user's muscles using electrical stimulation with a medically compliant signal generator. Without the motors, we obtain substantially smaller devices. Our prototype fits on the back of a mobile phone and and its usage is pain-free. The prototype actuates users' forearm muscles via four electrodes, which causes users' muscles to contract involuntarily, so that they tilt the device sideways. As users resist this motion using their other arm, they perceive force feedback.