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Ultrasonic sensor. Operating principle

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Uploaded on Apr 21, 2011

Ultrasonic sensor. Operating principleUltrasonic sensors are widely used as proximity sensors for remote detection of various objects, and also for measuring distance. The sensors operate by sending ultrasound waves towards detection object. The waves return after being reflected by the object surface. Then an electronic circuit calculates time between the moments of sending and receiving the signals.Distance is a derived quantity from time and sound speed in the surrounding environment. So let's have a look at the operating principle of a sensor with a through beam. Receiver and transmitter are separate devices which are placed against each other. Switch output is activated when ultrasound signal is interrupted by an object.Such device has very quick switching sequences. It has good resistance against interference and a wide operating range since the ultrasound beam passes the signal distance only once.Here is the operating principle of an ultrasound sensor with direct detection. Both receiver and transmitter are put into the same package. The device is based on the principle of detecting obstacles and activating a reflected signal.The sensor determines distance to the object by measuring time between the moment of sending an ultrasound pulse and receiving echo reflected from the object. The sensors operate in direct detection mode and have various analog outputs, depending on the model type.An ultrasound distance sensor with one converter performs the same functions as that of receiver and transmitter. At first it launches a short ultrasound pulse which triggers the inner timer.The timer stops when the signal returns to the sensor. Distance to the object is calculated on the basis of emission and reflection time of the signal. A microprocessor ensures full control of the working process.Ultrasound sensors have various features. They can measure distance to the object in complicated conditions, determine location of various objects, help you park your car, solve issues of technological-process automation, and determine an object's distance.

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