The Female Reproductive System of Human





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Published on Oct 16, 2012

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Female reproductive system is an important organic system in females for reproduction process. Reproduction is a process of production of new individuals from parents is known as reproduction. Reproductive system includes its structure, ova production, fertilization and importance of mammary glands during delivery in detailed. Fertilization had given an idea about how sperms enter in to the female reproductive part called uterus for fertilization and what is the impact of hormones during fertilization. Mammary glands gave an idea about its structure and how the fat material is converted in to milk during Delivery of the baby. Female reproductive system is more complex, both structurally and functionally. It consists of
A pair of ovaries attached with ligaments to the uterus. The ovary produces female gamets or ova.
In close relation to the ovary, ovarian and oviduct is present. It is a funnel shaped structure usually with fimbricated margin. The end serves to pick up the ova liberated from the ovary. The proximal end of oviduct enters in to the uterus.
The uterus is a muscular bag; The wall of the uterus as three layers of tissue. The external thin membranous perimetrium, middle thick layer of smooth muscle myometrium and inner glandular layer called endometrium that lines the uterine cavity. The endometrium under goes cyclical changes during menstrual cycle while myometrium exhibits strong contraction during the delivery of the baby.
Under proper hormonal stimulation uterine endometrial wall gets modified for the implantation of the fertilized ovum and also forms placenta and foetal membrane during intrauterine development of an embryo.
Uterus opens in to a long tube the vagina the opening being guarded by cervix of the uterus, a sphincter that prevents the entry of harmful bacteria and other substances inside it. Vagina serves to receive sperms after copulation. The accessory glands associated with the female reproductive tract are bartholin's glands opening by ducts at the external genital opening. Associated with the female reproductive system are mammary glands, their function being the nourishment of the young ones during prenatal life. The mammary glands are paired structures (breasts) that contain glandular tissue and variable amount of fat. The glandular tissue of each is divided into 15-20 mammary lobes containing clusters of cells called alveoli. The alveoli open in to mammary tubules. The tubules of each lobe join to form mammary tubules. The tubules of each lobe join to form a mammary duct. Ducts join to form a wider mammary ampulla which is connected to lactiferous duct through which milk is sucked out.
The female external genetalia include mons pubis, labia majora, labia minora, hymen and clitoris. The opening of vagina is partially covered by membrane called hymen. The clitoris is a tiny finger like structure above the urethral opening.
, this is called implantation and it leads to pregnancy.

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