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Published on Nov 14, 2010
"Admittedly, of all modern directors he alone has not openly rejected those devices beloved of avant-gardists of the thirties: superimpositions à la Delluc, reflections in the water à la Kirsanoff, back-lighting à la Epstein, that whole bric-à-brac of effects which one now finds only in the films of Gréville and Robert Hossein, or in amateur film festivals. But the use today of such outmoded tricks is audacity on Bergman's part. As used by the director of Summer With Monika, those mannered compositions, those bizarre angles, those shots of clouds, lakes, undergrowth, are not gratuitous camera tricks or technical virtuosity. On the contrary, Bergman always manages to integrate them into the psychology of his characters at the precise instant when he must evoke a precise feeling. Thus, for instance, a track out at dawn to express Monika's pleasure in her journey by boat through an awakening Stockholm; and later, the same tracking shot on the river and its embankments, but forwards this time as Monika returns, weary and disillusioned, to a sleeping Stockholm." godard on summer with monika