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What is POST-STROKE DEPRESSION? What does POST-STROKE DEPRESSION mean?

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Published on Aug 10, 2017

What is POST-STROKE DEPRESSION? What does POST-STROKE DEPRESSION mean? POST-STROKE DEPRESSION meaning - POST-STROKE DEPRESSION definition - POST-STROKE DEPRESSION explanation.

Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/... license.

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Post-stroke depression (PSD) is considered the most frequent and important neuropsychiatric consequence of stroke. Approximately one-third of stroke survivors experience major depression. Moreover, this condition can have an adverse effect on cognitive function, functional recovery and survival.

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) IV categorizes post-stroke depression as “mood disorder due to a general medical condition” (i.e. stroke) with the specifiers of depressive features, major depressive-like episodes, manic features, or mixed features. Utilizing patient data from acute hospital admission, community surveys, or out patient clinics previous studies have identified two types of depressive disorders associated with cerebral ischemia: major depression, which occurs in up to 25% of patients; and minor depression, which has been defined for research purposes by DSM-IV criteria as a depressed mood or loss of interest and at least two but fewer than four symptoms of major depression. Minor depression occurs in up to 30% of patients following stroke.

Prevalence clearly varies over time with an apparent peak 3–6 months after stroke and subsequent decline in prevalence at one-year reaches about to 50% of initial rates. Robinson and colleagues characterized the natural course of major depression after stroke with spontaneous remission typically 1 to 2 years after stroke However, it was also noted that in few cases depression becomes chronic and may persist more than 3 years following stroke . On the other hand, minor depression appeared to be more variable, with both short term and long term depression occurring in these patients .

Post-stroke depression is highly prevalent among both men and women post-stroke, however, it appears that post-stoke depression is more common in women when prevalence is compared between the sexes.

Women were twice as likely to experience post-stroke depression than men. It is hypothesized, based on CT scanning, that of the two sexes experiencing post-stroke depression, women who had post-stroke depression had a higher rate of left hemisphere lesions than men. However, risk of post-stroke depression can not be determined effectively based on the location of the lesion in the brain and more research in this area is needed.

It has also been postulated that the risk of developing post-stroke depression in male patients is partly linked to having a high level of limitations and disability in functioning, especially in performing activities of daily living (ADL's), as a result of their stroke; the greater the limitation, the greater the severity. Risk of developing depression post-stroke in women is partly linked to a history of psychological disorders as well as limitations involving cognition as a result of their stroke.

The scientific community is divided into two “camps” supporting opposing views: some propose a primary biological mechanism with stroke affecting neural circuits involved in mood regulation which in turn causes post-stroke depression, while other researchers claim that post stroke depression is caused by social and psychological stressors that emerge as a result of stroke.

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