Agent-based simulation of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), a type of breast cancer that is constrained to growth in the breast duct lumen by a basement membrane. Shown here: a simulation of 30 days' growth in a 1mm length of duct.
The mechanical and population dynamic parameters have been calibrated to patient-specific immunohistochemistry and other histologic measurements.
Dark circles: cell nuclei Green cells: proliferating cells (Ki-67 positive; S, G2, M, or G1) Red cells: apoptosis cells (cleaved Caspase-3 positive) Pale blue cells: quiescent cells (G0) Dark grey cells: necrotic cells prior to lysis Debris in centre of duct: necrotic cellular debris Red dots in centre of duct: clinically-detectable microcalcifications
Method: Agent-based, lattice-free model. Cell velocities determined by balance of adhesive and repulsive forces. Each cell has a phenotypic state governed by stochastic processes derived from nonhomogeneous Poisson processes.
Source: Macklin et al., "Patient-calibrated agent-based modelling of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS): From microscopic measurements to macroscopic predictions of clinical progression." J. Theor. Biol., 2012 (in press).