What are the digital literacies that virtual worlds require and can everyone acquire them? What are some of the barriers which virtual worlds present to learners? How can avatars redefine learner identities and promote learning? This keynote collects together my 12 years of research into how we define, describe and communicate the nature of virtual worlds, and looks forward to how VR may add to, or detract from, the virtual world experience. For educators new to virtual worlds, this aims to cover many of the basic principles of education in virtual worlds. For those more experienced, it will be an opportunity to reflect on many of those experiences.