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Cirrosis Hepática, Ascitis- Hipertensión Portal - liver cirrhosis

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Uploaded on May 14, 2009

Enviado por " CONSULTORIO MÉDICO FLORES BUISSON " MÁNCORA- PERÚ...
URL: http://consultoriomedicofloresmancora... ...


El hígado, el mayor órgano del cuerpo, es esencial para mantener el organismo funcionando adecuadamente. Elimina o neutraliza venenos de la sangre, produce agentes inmunitarios para controlar las infecciones y elimina gérmenes y bacterias de la sangre. Fabrica proteínas que regulan la coagulación de la sangre y produce bilis para ayudar a absorber las grasas y las vitaminas solubles en grasa. No se puede vivir sin un hígado que funcione bien.

En la cirrosis del hígado, el tejido normal y sano es reemplazado por un tejido cicatrizal que bloquea el flujo de sangre a través del órgano e impide que trabaje como debería. La cirrosis es la doceava causa de muerte por enfermedades, y mata a unas 26,000 personas al año. Además, el costo de la cirrosis en términos de sufrimiento humano, costos de hospital y pérdida de productividad también es alto.
Síntomas: Muchas personas con cirrosis no presentan síntomas al principio de la enfermedad. Sin embargo, a medida que el tejido cicatrizal reemplaza las células sanas, la función del hígado comienza a fallar y la persona puede tener los siguientes síntomas: Agotamiento, fatiga, falta de apetito, náusea, debilidad, pérdida de peso, dolor abdominal, vasos sanguíneos en forma de araña (angioma de araña) que se desarollan en la piel.

What is Cirrhosis?: Cirrhosis is characterized anatomically by widespread nodules in the liver combined with fibrosis. The fibrosis and nodule formation causes distortion of the normal liver architecture which interferes with blood flow through the liver. Cirrhosis can also lead to an inability of the liver to perform its biochemical functions. To understand the pathophysiology of cirrhosis, the normal anatomy and physiology of the liver must first be briefly reviewed.
Cirrhosis is usually an easy diagnosis to make when any or all of the above abnormalities and complications are present. This is especially true when the underlying liver disease can be identified. The underlying liver disease (see below) is identified in most patients, however, sometimes it will not be discovered. Such cases are called "cryptogenic" cirrhosis. Sometimes, other conditions such as metastatic cancer, hepatic or portal vein thrombosis, severe acute hepatitis or acute bile duct obstruction can cause some of the abnormalities seen in cirrhosis. A careful history combined with special diagnostic tests will usually identify these conditions.
Some patients with cirrhosis, especially early in the course of the disease, will have no overt clinical signs or symptoms. Some may have only subtle physical changes such as red palms, red spots that blanch on their upper body (spider angiomata), hypertrophy of the parotid glands, gynecomastia or fibrosis of tendons in the palms. Some patients may only have subtle abnormalities on blood tests, and in some cases, all blood tests may be normal. Radiological and nuclear medicine tests may give clues as to the presence of cirrhosis, but the diagnosis of cirrhosis must often be made by liver biopsy.

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