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Venus Exploration

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Published on Dec 5, 2008

Exploration of planet Venus by Pioneer Venus and Magellan spacecraft, also Russian Venera probes.

Orbital characteristics
Epoch J2000
Aphelion 108,942,109 km
0.728 231 28 AU
Perihelion 107,476,259 km
0.718 432 70 AU
Semi-major axis 108,208,930 km
0.723 332 AU
Eccentricity 0.006 8
Orbital period 224.700 69 day
0.615 197 0 yr
1.92 Venus solar day
Synodic period 583.92 days
Average orbital speed 35.02 km/s
Inclination 3.394 71° to Ecliptic
3.86° to Suns equator
2.19° to Invariable plane
Longitude of ascending node 76.670 69°
Argument of perihelion 54.852 29°
Satellites None
Physical characteristics
Mean radius 6,051.8 ± 1.0 km
0.949 9 Earths
Flattening 0[3]
Surface area 4.60 × 108 km²
0.902 Earths
Volume 9.38 × 1011 km³
0.857 Earths
Mass 4.868 5 × 1024 kg
0.815 Earths
Mean density 5.204 g/cm³
Equatorial surface gravity 8.87 m/s2
0.904 g
Escape velocity 10.46 km/s
Sidereal rotation
period -243.018 5 day
Equatorial rotation velocity 6.52 km/h (1.81 m/s)
Axial tilt 177.3°
North pole right ascension 18 h 11 min 2 s
272.76°[4]
North pole declination 67.16°
Albedo 0.65 (geometric) or 0.75 (bond)
Surface temp.
Kelvin
Celsius min mean max
735 K
461.85 °C




Apparent magnitude up to -4.6 (crescent)
-3.8 (full)
Angular diameter 9.7" 66.0"
Atmosphere
Surface pressure 93 bar (9.3 MPa)
Composition ~96.5% Carbon dioxide
~3.5% Nitrogen
0.015% Sulfur dioxide
0.007% Argon
0.002% Water vapor
0.001 7% Carbon monoxide
0.001 2% Helium
0.000 7% Neon
trace Carbonyl sulfide
trace Hydrogen chloride
trace Hydrogen fluoride

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