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Blood Types: ABO and Rh (with donuts and sprinkles!)

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Published on Apr 14, 2013

All about blood types - ABO and Rh blood groups. Who donates to whom? How are blood types inherited? What are the medical issues involved with transfusions? DON'T memorize that donor / recipient table - watch this video instead!

Links to videos mentioned:
Mendelian Genetics: Fun with Cats and Peas http://youtu.be/xtJwHytHRfI

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VIDEO DETAILS:

Blood Groups: ABO and Rh
Blood Group Systems
32 human blood group systems are now recognized by the International Society of Blood Transfusion
The most important of these: ABO blood group system and Rh blood group system

Discovery of ABO Blood Types
ABO blood types were discovered in 1900 by Dr. Karl Landsteiner at the University of Vienna
He wondered why some patients died as a result of blood transfusions and others did not
Inheritance

Blood types are inherited genetic traits (like eye color, hair color, etc.)

ABO Analogy: Donuts and Sprinkles
donut = red blood cell
A sprinkles = A antigens
B sprinkles = B antigens
no sprinkles = no antigens (plain donut)

What are the antigens chemically?

Alleles in the ABO System
i = base (plain donut)
IA = encodes A antigens
IB = encodes B antigens

Allele Combinations
ii
IAIA or IAi
IBIB or IBi
IAIB

Antigens and Antibodies
The antigens you have on your blood cells are recognized by your immune system as SELF antigens
If foreign antigens are discovered in your body, antibodies (or immunoglobulins) will be made by B cells of the immune system

Antibody Structure

Antigen + Antibody = agglutination reaction
Agglutination = the clumping of particles
Latin: agglutinare meaning 'to glue'

Mixing of all blood groups and the result

KEY: CANNOT transfuse if foreign antigens are introduced!!!

The Rh Antigen
Inherited in Mendelian fashion!
Medical issue: Rh- mother and Rh+ fetus
Good News...
Rho(D) Globulin Treatment
("RhoGAM")

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