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Book | Wikipedia audio article

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Published on Dec 6, 2018

This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article:
Book


00:05:30 1 Etymology
00:06:28 2 History
00:06:36 2.1 Antiquity
00:06:58 2.1.1 Tablet
00:07:57 2.1.2 Scroll
00:09:26 2.1.3 Codex
00:11:20 2.1.4 Manuscripts
00:16:17 2.1.5 Middle East
00:18:07 2.1.6 Wood block printing
00:19:02 2.1.7 Movable type and incunabula
00:20:02 2.2 19th century to 21st centuries
00:22:06 3 Modern manufacturing
00:23:56 3.1 Processes
00:24:04 3.1.1 Layout
00:25:38 3.1.2 Printing
00:26:57 3.1.3 Binding
00:28:40 3.2 Finishing
00:29:18 4 Digital printing
00:30:19 4.1 E-book
00:31:12 5 Design
00:32:01 6 Sizes
00:34:15 7 Types
00:34:24 7.1 By content
00:34:43 7.1.1 Fiction
00:36:02 7.1.2 Non-fiction
00:38:33 7.1.3 Other types
00:39:28 7.2 Decodable readers and leveled books
00:40:13 7.3 By physical format
00:41:11 8 Libraries
00:43:45 9 Identification and classification
00:46:43 9.1 Classification systems
00:47:21 10 Uses
00:48:06 11 Book marketing
00:48:28 11.1 Other forms of secondary spread
00:49:20 11.2 Evolution of the book industry
00:50:11 12 Paper and conservation



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"The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing."
- Socrates



SUMMARY
=======
A book is both a usually portable physical object and the body of immaterial representations or intellectual object whose material signs—written or drawn lines or other two-dimensional media—the physical object contains or houses.
As a physical object, a book is a stack of usually rectangular pages (made of papyrus, parchment, vellum, or paper) oriented with one side (either left or right, depending on the direction in which one reads a script) tied, sewn, or otherwise fixed together and then bound to the flexible spine of a protective cover of heavier, relatively inflexible material so that, when the opened front cover has received a massy enough stack of sheets, the book can lie flat. The technical term for this physical arrangement is codex (in the plural, codices). In the history of hand-held physical supports for extended written compositions or records, the codex replaces its immediate predecessor, the scroll.
As an intellectual object, a book is prototypically a composition of such great length that it takes a considerable investment of time to compose and a still considerable, though not so extensive, investment of time to read. This sense of book has a restricted and an unrestricted sense. In the restricted sense, a book is a self-sufficient section or part of a longer composition, a usage that reflects the fact that, in antiquity, long works had to be written on several scrolls, and each scroll had to be identified by the book it contained. So, for instance, each part of Aristotle's Physics is called a book, as of course the Bible encompasses many different books. In the unrestricted sense, a book is the compositional whole of which such sections, whether called books or chapters or parts, are parts.
But the intellectual content in a physical book need not be a composition, or can be called a book. Books can consist only of drawings, engravings, or photographs, or such things as crossword puzzles or cut-out dolls. In a physical book the pages can be left blank or can feature an abstract set of lines as support for on-going entries, i.e., an account book, an appointment book, a log book, an autograph book, a notebook, a diary or day book, or a sketch book. Some physical books are made with pages thick and sturdy enough to support other physical objects, like a scrapbook or photograph album.
Books may be distributed in electronic form as e-books and other formats. In its "Revised Recommendation concerning the International Standardization of Statistics on the Production and Distribution of Books, Newspapers and Periodicals" of 1 November 1985, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) stated that it was "convinced that it is desirable that the national authorities responsible for collecting and reporting statistics relating to the production and distribution of printed publications should be guided by certain standards in the ...

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