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Published on May 7, 2006
TN (Twisted-Nematic) liquid crystal is put between crossed-Nicol polarizer/analyzer pair and then applied ramp wave voltage ranging from 2 V to 8 V with period 60 s. We can obverve what's called Freedericksz transition in which alignment of liquid crystal molecules changes. Initially they are parallel to the wall (glass plate with ITO electrode), but as the electric field gets stronger, they are forced to be parallel to the electric field. We see colorful textures because I used white light for the microscope. White light contains all colors, and the color which can pass through polarizer/analyzer pair varies from place to place because of inhomogeneity of the sample. I'm sorry that I forgot which kind of TN liquid crystal we used.