// Abstract We propose extending the affordance of objects by allowing them to communicate dynamic use, such as (1) motion (e.g., spray can shakes when touched), (2) multi-step processes (e.g., spray can sprays only after shaking), and (3) behaviors that change over time (e.g., empty spray can does not allow spraying anymore). Rather than enhancing objects directly, however, we implement this concept by enhancing the user. We call this affordance++. By stimulating the user’s arms using electrical muscle stimulation, our prototype allows objects not only to make the user actuate them, but also perform required movements while merely approaching the object, such as not to touch objects that do not “want” to be touched. In our user study, affordance++ helped participants to successfully operate devices of poor natural affordance, such as a multi-functional slicer tool or a magnetic nail sweeper, and to stay away from cups filled with hot liquids.
// creative commons attribution Music: Mesmerize by Kevin Macleod (licensed under Creative Commons)"