Chernobyl disaster. Чернобыльская катастрофа.





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Uploaded on Apr 27, 2011

разрушение 26 апреля 1986 года четвёртого энергоблока Чернобыльской атомной электростанции, расположенной на территории Украинской ССР (ныне — Украина). Разрушение носило взрывной характер, реактор был полностью разрушен, и в окружающую среду было выброшено большое количество радиоактивных веществ. Авария расценивается как крупнейшая в своём роде за всю историю атомной энергетики, как по предполагаемому количеству погибших и пострадавших от её последствий людей, так и по экономическому ущербу. На момент аварии Чернобыльская АЭС была самой мощной в СССР. 31 человек погиб в течение первых трех месяцев после аварии; отдалённые последствия облучения, выявленные за последующие 15 лет, стали причиной гибели от 60 до 80 человек. 134 человека перенесли лучевую болезнь той или иной степени тяжести, более 115 тыс. человек из 30-километровой зоны были эвакуированы. Для ликвидации последствий были мобилизованы значительные ресурсы, более 600 тыс. человек участвовали в ликвидации последствий аварии.
The Chernobyl disaster was a nuclear accident that occurred on 26 April 1986 at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in the Ukrainian SSR (now Ukraine). An explosion and fire released large quantities of radioactive contamination into the atmosphere, which spread over much of Western Russia and Europe. It is considered the worst nuclear power plant accident in history, and is one of only two classified as a level 7 event on the International Nuclear Event Scale (the other being the Fukushima I nuclear incident, which is considered far less serious and has caused no direct deaths). The battle to contain the contamination and avert a greater catastrophe ultimately involved over 500,000 workers and cost an estimated 18 billion rubles, crippling the Soviet economy.

The disaster began during a systems test on 26 April 1986 at reactor number four of the Chernobyl plant, which is near the town of Pripyat. There was a sudden power output surge, and when an emergency shutdown was attempted, a more extreme spike in power output occurred, which led to a reactor vessel rupture and a series of explosions. These events exposed the graphite moderator of the reactor to air, causing it to ignite. The resulting fire sent a plume of highly radioactive smoke fallout into the atmosphere and over an extensive geographical area, including Pripyat. The plume drifted over large parts of the western Soviet Union and Europe. From 1986 to 2000, 350,400 people were evacuated and resettled from the most severely contaminated areas of Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine. According to official post-Soviet data,about 60% of the fallout landed in Belarus.

The accident raised concerns about the safety of the Soviet nuclear power industry, as well as nuclear power in general, slowing its expansion for a number of years and forcing the Soviet government to become less secretive about its procedures.

Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus have been burdened with the continuing and substantial decontamination and health care costs of the Chernobyl accident. Thirty one deaths are directly attributed to the accident, all among the reactor staff and emergency workers. A UNSCEAR report places the total confirmed deaths from radiation at 64 as of 2008. Estimates of the number of deaths potentially resulting from the accident vary enormously: the World Health Organization (WHO) suggest it could reach 4,000; a Greenpeace report puts this figure at 200,000 or more; a Russian publication, Chernobyl, concludes that 985,000 excess deaths occurred between 1986 and 2004 as a result of radioactive contamination.


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