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Scratching Using Vinyl Records

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Published on Apr 25, 2010

Scratching Using Vinyl Records
Scratching to some oldschool rap htto://www.hitcreatormusic.ning.com "Scratching" is also a present participle of "scratch", and may also refer to a form of street art

Scratching is a DJ or turntablist technique used to produce distinctive sounds by moving a vinyl record back and forth on a turntable while manipulating the crossfader on a DJ mixer. While scratching is most commonly associated with hip hop music, since the 1990s, it has been used in some styles of pop and nu metal. Within hip hop culture, scratching is one of the measures of a DJ's skills, and there are many scratching competitions. In recorded hip-hop songs, scratched hooks often use portions of different rap songs. Scratching was developed by early hip hop DJs from New York such as Grand Wizard Theodore and DJ Grandmaster Flash, who describes scratching as, "nothing but the back-cueing that you hear in your ear before you push it [the recorded sound] out to the crowd." (Toop, 1991). Jamaican-born DJ Kool Herc also influenced the early development of scratching. Kool Herc developed break-beat DJing, where the breaks of funk songs—being the most danceable part, often featuring percussion—were isolated and repeated for the purpose of all-night dance parties.[1]

Although previous artists such as William S. Burroughs had experimented with the idea of manipulating a record manually for the sounds produced (such as with his 1950s recording, "Sound Piece"), scratching as an element of hip hop pioneered the idea of making the sound an integral and rhythmic part of music instead of uncontrolled noise.

DJ Q-Bert Hip Hop Scratching
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Sample of DJ Q-Bert scratching live
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Christian Marclay was one of the earliest musicians to scratch outside of hip hop. In the mid-1970s, Marclay used gramophone records and turntables as musical instruments to create sound collages. He developed his turntable sounds independently of hip hop DJs. Although he is little-known to mainstream audiences, Marclay has been described as "the most influential turntable figure outside hip hop." [2] and the "unwitting inventor of turntablism."[3]

Grandmaster Flash was the first person to release a song, "The Adventures of Grandmaster Flash on the Wheels of Steel", with scratching on it in 1981. In 1982, Malcolm McLaren & the World's Famous Supreme Team released a single "Buffalo Gals", juxtaposing extensive scratching with calls from square dancing, and, in 1983, the EP, D'ya Like Scratchin'?, which is entirely focuseVinyl recordings

Most scratches are produced by moving a vinyl record back and forth with the hand while it is playing on a turntable. This creates a distinctive sound that has come to be one of the most recognizable features of hip hop music. Over time with excessive scratching the needle will cause what is referred to as record burn.

Freaky Flow - Drum N'Bass Jungle scratching
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Sample of Drum N'Bass Jungle scratching
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The basic equipment setup for scratching includes two turntables, and a DJ mixer, which is a mixer that has a crossfader and "cue" buttons to allow the DJ to "cue up" new music without the audience hearing. When scratching, this crossfader is utilized in conjunction with the "scratching hand" to cut in and out of the scratched record. Non-vinyl scratching * CDJs, devices that allow a DJ to manipulate a CD as if it were a vinyl record, have become widely available. * Vinyl emulation software allows a DJ to manipulate the playback of digital music files on a computer using the turntables as an interface. This allows DJs to scratch, beatmatch, and perform other turntablist maneuvers that would be impossible with a conventional keyboard-and-mouse. Scratch software includes Traktor Scratch Pro, Final Scratch, Mixxx, Serato Scratch Live, Virtual DJ, M-Audio Torq, and Digital Scratch. * More rarely, DJs do scratching with magnetic tape by recording music onto magnetic stripes and disassembling a cassette tape recorder to play the magnetic stripes

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