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M1: Introduction to Turbomachinery (Rotating Machinery Master by UZ)

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Published on Oct 16, 2013

Turbomachines are devices in which energy is transferred to or from a fluid flowing across them.
This energy transfer is accomplished by the dynamic effect of fluid rotation around the axis of the machine.
Applications of turbo machinery.
Power Absorbing

Impelling, pumping and rising liquids
Blowing and moving gases
Compressing gases
Jet propulsion
Power Producing

Expanding fluids from high to low pressure recovering energy (turbo-expanders)
Extracting energy from a stream
Driving electrical generators, pumps, compressors
Types of turbo machines
Energy transfer direction
Absorbing Power: Pumps, compressors
Producing Power: Turbines, fluid motors
Fluid density change
Hydraulic Machines: Pumps, Fans
(constant density)
Thermal Machines: Compressors,
(variable density) gas turbines
Flow Direction
Hydraulic Pumps
Radial or centrifugal
Axial o Propeller Pumps
Fans
Fans work in actuality like pumps. The pressure change is small enough to consider constant density despite the working fluid being a gas. Their construction is much flimsier than that of pumps because gas densities are orders of magnitude lower than liquid densities.
Compressors
Compressors work like pumps of very high pressure rise. Therefore gas density changes are considerable. Axial configurations require several steps or stages to achieve the desired compression effect. Diffusors or stators are always required.
Gas and steam turbines
Gas turbines expand a high pressure stream to lower pressure extracting power from the fluid to move a shaft. Radial inflow designs are most common for gases but there are also outflow designs mainly for steam.
Most gas and steam turbines in use are of the axial type. Although usually multistage the number of stages is lower than that of an axial compressor. Steam turbines exhibit a large increase in diameter along the axis due to the high expansion rate of steam.

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