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Published on Jul 30, 2013
The Transhumance has been implemented for centuries at Balkan Peninsula, but recently it has been almost forgotten in Bulgaria. Now, very few farmers are practicing short-distant pendulous movements of their herds, from mountains to the valleys in winter and back in summer. This kind of vertical movement is similar to the Transhumance, but no long distant horizontal movements are applied. Transhumance is believed to be more economically effective and of highest nature conservation importance. As avoid overgrazing in the lowlands and keep the mountain pastures opened. Many species of plants, birds and mammals are threatened of extinction due to habitat loss. This is especially well documented regarding the pastoral habitats in mountains and lowlands. Species like Imperial Eagle, Lesser Kestrel, European Souslik all listed as Vulnerable in IUCN Red list, are highly dependent on the existence of open habitats that are well grazed and so the diversity of plants and insects is high. The Saker Falcon, recently listed as Endangered on Global level, is also highly dependent on the presence of open well grazed habitats in the mountains and lowlands. The traditions of implementing Transhumance have been totally lost during the Communistic period in Bulgaria due to the nationalization of economy including the livestock breeding.