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Published on Dec 22, 2011
Dualism is a set of theories and philosophies about the relationship between mind and the brain. In particular, dualism claims that mental phenomena are not fully taking place in the physical world, but require some other type of reality such as a spirit or a soul.
Dualism is often attributed to the philosophy of René Descartes (1596-1650), who asserted that the mind is a nonphysical substance. Dualism is the opposite view against physicalism, also known as materialism or monoism. Substance dualism is the strongest form of dualism and is distinct from all forms of physicalism. Property dualism seems to have some philosophy in common with emergent physicalism but remains distinct from non-emergent physicalism.