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Published on Nov 2, 2010
Simulation of isoviscous Mantle Convection (3-D thermal convection in a spherical shell) at Ra=10**6. isosurfaces of the residual temperature $\delta T = T(r,\theta,\lambda) - \langle T(r)\rangle$, where $\langle\;\rangle$ denotes averaging over a spherical surface. Yellow isosurface corresponds to $\delta T = 0.1$ and indicates upwelling. Blue isosurface corresponds to $\delta T = -0.1$ and indicates downwelling. The red solid sphere shows the inner boundary of the 3D shell corresponding to the core. The inner shell boundary is held at a fixed temperature of $T=1$ for all time, while the outer shell is held fixed at $T=0$. This is an example of Rayleigh-B\'enard convection at infinite Prandtl number.
Please see the paper:
G.B. Wright, N. Flyer, and D.A. Yuen. A hybrid radial basis function - pseudospectral method for thermal convection in a 3D spherical shell. Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 11 (2010), Q07003.