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Red Army snipers

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Uploaded on Dec 30, 2008

History channel documentary http://www.history.com/

Snipers of the Soviet Union played an important role mainly on the Eastern Front of World War II, apart from other preceding and subsequent conflicts. In World War II, Soviet snipers used the 7.62x54R rifle cartridge with light, heavy, armour-piercing (B-30), armour-piercing-and-incendiary (B-32), zeroing-and-incendiary (P3), and tracer bullets. Most Soviet WWII snipers carried a combat load of 120 rifle cartridges in the field.Unlike the militaries of other nations, these snipers could be men or women. In 1943, there were over 2,000 women functioning in this role.

Soviet military doctrine used snipers for providing long-distance suppressive fire and for eliminating targets of opportunity, especially leaders, because during The Great Patriotic War, Soviet military leaders and combat theorists (Vasily Zaytsev contributed greatly to Soviet sniper doctrine, found that military organisations have difficulty replacing experienced non-commissioned officers and field officers during times of war. They also found that the more expensive and less rugged sniper rifles could match the cost-effectiveness of a cheaper assault rifle given good personnel selection, training, and adherence to doctrine. The Soviet Union also used women for sniping duties extensively, including Lyudmila Pavlichenko and Nina Alexeyevna Lobkovskaya. The most successful Soviet use of snipers during the Great Patriotic War was during their defensive stages of the war (1941-1943), after which the advantage of defence shifted to the German side and German snipers became a real danger to the advancing Soviets.

The sniper version of the Mosin-Nagant rifle was used before, after, and during The Great Patriotic War. The second soviet sniper rifle of that era, the Tokarev SVT-40, was also the sniper variant of a service rifle. The SVT-40 was a newer semi-automatic rifle chambered for the same ammunition as the older bolt action Mosin-Nagant. It was produced and used in smaller numbers then the Mosin-Nagant during World War II and is therefore not so famous,and most Soviet snipers preferred the mosin nagant over the Tokarev.

Notable Soviet snipers include" * Ivan Sidorenko (WWII, 500 kills) * Fyodor Matveyevich Okhlopkov (WWII, 429 kills) * Vasily Grigoryevich Zaitsev (WWII, 400 kills) * Lyudmila Pavlichenko (WWII, 309 kills) * Nina Alexeyevna Lobkovskaya (WWII, 308 kills) * Roza Yegorovna Shanina (WWII, 54 kills)

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