Will Humvee Bulletproof Glass Stop Sustained Fire?
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About the Humvee:
The Humvee seats 4 with an available fully enclosed metal cabin with a vertical windshield. The body is constructed from lightweight and rust-resistant aluminum, instead of conventional steel. It has all-wheel drive with an independent suspension and helical gear-reduction hubs similar to portal axles which attach towards the top rather than center of each wheel to allow the drivetrain shafts to be raised for a full 16 in (410 mm) of ground clearance. The body is mounted on a narrow steel frame with boxed rails and five cross members for rigidity. The rails act as sliders to protect the drivetrain which is nestled between and above the rails. Raising the drivetrain into the cabin area and lowering the seats into the frame creates a massive chest-high transmission hump which separates passengers on each side and lowers the overall center of gravity compared to most trucks where the body and passengers are above the frame. The vehicle also has disc brakes on all 4 wheels, and 4-wheel Portal axle double-wishbone suspension. The brake discs are not mounted at the wheels as on conventional automobiles, but are inboard, attached to the outside of each differential. The front and rear differentials are Torsen type, and the center differential is a regular, lockable type. Torque-biasing differentials allows forward movement as long as at least one wheel has traction. It runs on specialized 37 × 12.5 radial tires with low-profile runflat devices. Newer HMMWV versions can be equipped with an optional central tire inflation system (CTIS) kit in the field. While it is optimized for off-road mobility, it can drive at highway speeds of 55 mph (89 km/h) at maximum weight with a top speed of 70 mph (110 km/h).
HMMWVs are well suited for air mobile operations as they are transportable by C-130 or larger combat transports, droppable by parachute, and can be sling-loaded from helicopters, though there are smaller vehicles such as the Growler which were designed to fit into smaller craft such as the V-22. In combat conditions, the HMMWV can be delivered by the Low Altitude Parachute Extraction System which pulls the vehicle out of the open rear ramp just above the ground without the aircraft having to land.
There are at least 17 variants of the HMMWV in service with the U.S. military. HMMWVs serve as cargo/troop carriers, automatic weapons platforms, ambulances (four litter patients or eight ambulatory patients), M220 TOW missile carriers, M119 howitzer prime movers, M1097 Avenger Pedestal Mounted Stinger platforms, MRQ-12 direct air support vehicles, S250 shelter carriers, and other roles. The HMMWV is capable of fording 2.5 ft (76 cm) normally, or 5 ft (1.5 m) with the deep-water fording kits installed.
The M1114 "up-armored" HMMWV, introduced in 1996, also features a similar weapons mount. In addition, some M1114 and M1116 up-armored and M1117 Armored Security Vehicle models feature a Common Remotely Operated Weapon Station (CROWS), which allows the gunner to operate from inside the vehicle, and/or the Boomerang anti-sniper detection system. Recent improvements have also led to the development of the M1151 model, which quickly rendered the previous models obsolete. By replacing the M1114, M1116, and earlier armored HMMWV types with a single model, the U.S. Army hopes to lower maintenance costs.
The latest iteration of the Humvee series can be seen in the M1151A1 and later up-armored A1-versions. It has a stronger suspension and larger 6.5 liter turbo-diesel engine to accommodate the weight of up to 680 kg (1,500 lb) of additional armor. The armor protection can be installed or taken off depending on the operating environment, so the vehicles can move more efficiently without armor when there is no threat of attack. There is some underbody armor that moderately protects against mines and roadside bombs. Other improvements include Vehicle Emergency Escape (VEE) windows that can be quickly removed so troops inside can escape in the event of a rollover, jammed door, or the vehicle catching fire, and a blast chimney that vents the force of a bomb blast upwards and away from the occupants. The M1151A1 has a crew of four, can carry 2,000 lb (910 kg) of payload, and can tow a 4,000 lb (1,800 kg) load. On roads, it has a top speed of 80 km/h (50 mph) and a range of 480 km (300 mi).