Wood tiger moths (Arctia plantaginis) in Finland may confuse you: while they all have black-and-white forewings, males have yellow or white hindwings, and female hindwings are red or orange. Their colouration makes the moths stand out on natural backgrounds, but as the moths taste bad, birds memorise their warning colouration, and soon learn not to attack them. This would be even easier if all moths had the same colour.
So why does the species have so many colours? Researchers at Lund University, Sweden, the University of Jyväskylä, Finland, and the University of Queensland, Australia, looked at the moths through the eyes of the moths themselves, and through the eyes of a bird that preys on them, to find out. Read the paper here: Henze, M. J., Lind, O., Mappes, J., Rojas, B. and Kelber, A. 2018. An aposematic colour‐polymorphic moth seen through the eyes of conspecifics and predators ‐ sensitivity and colour discrimination in a tiger moth. Functional Ecology. DOI:10.1111/1365-2435.13100