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Columbus, de Gama, and Zheng He! 15th Century Mariners. Crash Course: World History #21

by CrashCourse • 969,540 views

In which John Green teaches you about the beginning of the so-called Age of Discovery. You've probably heard of Christopher Columbus, who "discovered" America in 1492, but what about Vasco da Gama?...

Age Of Empire alredy learn me this xD miss the game.....
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I miss the Aoe series  too ;)
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Historical fact, Christopher Columbus enjoyed raping 9 year old girls as did many of the members of his crew. They would cut the hands off of natives for no crime whatsoever, they would then force the natives to wear their severed hands around their necks. This served as a warning to other natives, to do as you were told and to submit to power. This is the legacy of Christopher Columbus, this is the truth.
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+TrueTreeRadio lucky christopher columbus....
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Just wandering, for an alternate history experiment.... what if Zheng He discovered Australia?
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+David Liu Yeah, cheap ripoff of Russian jets is called Chinese Aircrafts. LOL Chinese toys are like Chinese toys brittle and junk.
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+David Liu One field where Chinese are quite innovate is how to create fake cabbage, fake eggs, fake meat, fake noodles, cardboard dumplings, melamine infested milk etc and etc. IMO poop oil is the most innovate of them. LMAO
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this channel is the only the reason why i'm passing ap world history . 
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De Gamo had a beard, obvious winner!
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And he died having testicles
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But the vikings was the first to european to discover americas 500 years before coloumbus C:
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+Benxx Fires try looking up coffee, and youll find the earliest usage is from ethiopia, next door to egypt, and NOT in south america.
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+Benxx Fires Coffee is originally from Ethiopia. Folklore says some monks saw their sheep can't sleep after eating certain berries and thus coffee was discovered.
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This is when the world got fucked soon as Spain found the wester hemisphere
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3:01, I would just like to point out the master sword (LoZ) in the pile with all the other swordy stuff.
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Hi +CrashCourse  I am wondering, you should make social history videos. I think it's important how people lived in the past. Yes it's boring compared to history of warfare and general human world history but you have a great sense of humour to make it interesting. Also I believe that it's important to understand how people think in the past and what their norms are. Knowing our ancestors lived differently it would be interesting to see and compare on how they lived in the past and how we live today. Maybe mentioned how technologies improved our daily lives? Thank you. Regards, Kenneth
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Such ignorance! You talk about "beginning" of the Age of Discovery and you only talk about Vasco da Gama?  After the conquest of Ceuta in 1415 (which cut the slave trade of Europeans in those areas) the Age of Discovery began for the Portuguese. Vasco da Gama reached India in 1498. It was several years of exploration and learning. Not to talk about Pedro Álvares Cabral, the one that reached Brasil. Too much information not told, most of it before Vasco da Gama. "Scrappy little Portugal" is just idiotic. Portugal has the oldest frontiers as a country in Europe. Before Spain existed as a unified country. I almost bet the info you got was from wikipedia or less. I know you are u.s.american but still... Columbus was Portuguese trained. He went to Lisbon in 1476 and remained there for several years, seeking the support of the Portuguese king and gathering nautical and geographic intelligence from the returning sailors. He even married a Portuguese woman; obtained navigation charts and related information from his father-in-law, >>>Bartholomew Perestrelo<<<, who was the governor of the island of Porto Santo in Madeira (just an island we discovered). You don't even talk the why we went to India by that route and the importance of that maritime route. Your words are well suited for you "if you are not an expert in something do not pretend to be an expert in something".
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Zheng he is still the best
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yeah, you know what "China" means in Chinese ? "Middle Earth". Torkien would say, "What ?!!!"
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+Sobaan Tuan and it's Tolkien, not Torkien.
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+Collin Buckman I heard its 'middle Kingdom', Zhongguo.
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The Wall began construction around 200 BC. The majority of today's wall was built in the Ming era.
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Columbus was a faggot
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Zheng He based his work on an extensive knowledge of the trading routes and a prowess of governance, travelled the world as a means not to conquer, but to connect. Sure he wasn't innovative, at least not in the way de Gama and Columbus were, but he expanded and reconciled the ways in which we view the world in a way that I have the most respect for.
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Mmm, Spain was already the leading power in Europe before the New World's resources had a significant impact. One could say that, altogether with the colonization of the new world, the other events (After the unification of Castile and Aragon and the reconquest of Granada) that made Spain the top power were the Italian Wars and the Habpsburg heritage through Charles the Vth, both of which were achieved up to the 1520s, that is before even the conquests of the Aztecs or the Incas were conducted or before any significant base of power and trade could be established. The Spanish Kingoms were largely ignored by central european powers because they were focused on their southern front (aka, the muslims) and also because they were divided and were often rivals. But when there were no more moors to conquer, they turned their attention to Europe, and the 2 major kingdoms in the peninsula united, creating a strong competitor in the European theatre, and let's not mention they later inherited the Burgundian territories and became rulers of the HRE,  and all that would had happened even if the discovery of America had not happened.  To be honest, the wealth of the Americas mostly contributed to inflation problems and to encourage the rulers of spain into getting involved into costly and pointless conflicts...
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+Joel Santos​ ohhh the two love birds still talking about, take this L for the history fuckin hobos
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+Joel Santos I wouldn't consider Portugal "trumped" by Spain. Felipe had a legitimate direct claim to the throne of Portugal, he just inherited it after a succesion war (which was pretty common at the times, her very grandomother, Queen Isabella, had to fight one to get to her throne). Nationalism was borderline unexistant at the time, there were just several valid claimants, and they all pressed their advantages. In fact, there were portuguese troops and ships fighting for Felipe (like at the Battle of the Terceira Islands). The Spanish Empire at the time was not Spain with subjugated vassals, but rather a multinational blend in which germans, burgundians (dutch, belgians), italians, spaniards and later portuguese fought among each other, there was no particular preeminence of one nationality over the other (Emperor Charles himself being a native french-speaker from what today is Belgium), and you had Germans fighting for the interests of Spain in the middle of the Atlantic same as spaniards fighting for the interest of the HRE as far as Prague or Vienna themselves. The vast majority of the Spanish/Imperial dominions (save for Portugal and northern Italy) were inherited peacefully through diplomacy and strategic marriages, it was not preciselly a single nation vanquishing others. The only real common enemies were the French, the Turks and the Protestants. Spain and Portugal have had a very long and linked history, and both nations have had their times. Portugal had Aljubarrota, Spain had Alcántara and Terceira, and they also fought together in several ocassions.  I personally would have prefered that both crowns had remained together, and not as a Spanish conquest, but as the sisters both nations have always been. Together Portugal and Spain would have probably avoided to fade from history after the XIXth. century and remain a relevant nation in Europe (and maybe worldwide) today. It was not about conquests or religions. In the 16th. century Europe wasted a chance that wouldn't regain until our times with the European Union.
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The BIGGEST mistake that done by Chinese(Ming Dynasty) during that period of time was not conquering the world while we can...I mean fuck we invented Gunpowder, compass and many others things that surpass the rest of the world for decades or even centuries. Instead of killing the natives, raping the local women, looting all the treasures and natural resources and colonising anywhere we went, forcibly install our language and philosophy to the local population while sailing bon voyage around the world we went everywhere and make friends with EVERY FUCKING ONE !!! Heck imagine what happens if Chinese did the exact same things that the British, Spanish, Portuguese and Dutch done during this age of discovery... We were too kind and civilized ... I blame Confusionism and Buddhism in this matter.... Because of him now we Chinese have to face the shame and humiliation that are avoidable since the early mid 19th century cause by the western Europeans and fucking Japs !
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+CrazySoon9413 I have to say though, as much as warfare looks fun it ain't. Sorry to say this but you are a warmongering nationalistic idiot. Yes conquer the world but had the Chinese did so, they will be just as evil as the people who tried to conquer them. I guess some people just wants to see the world burn -_- PS. I noticed you never replied, strange how you cowered XD
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If you say that hongkongers dont want to be Mailanders is because of their attitude
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I start watching this to study for history midterms realize halfway thru tht it doesnt have all the info i need yet continue watching it cuz its interesting and awesome. 😀
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as cool as it is to think that Zheng-he had epic mecha flagships, from an engineering standpoint those things would be damn near impossible to take on rougher seas. They found the rudder for one of those supposed flagships and it was a rudder sized for a ship of about 60m (which was average ship for the Western countries) instead of the supposed legendary 180m ships that Zheng-he might have had. Shame on you, John! I expected you to mention that.
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Well you know this channel, it's only interested in the narrative that everything Europeans do is wrong and inferior than the non-Europeans. It's revisionist history and isn't known for it's accuracy. 
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I'd rather be Columbus!
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The Portuguese tried to capture Mogadishu but they were pushed back. Mogadishu is truly a historic place Ibn battuta travelled there at its height and Zheng he ,even tried to take over but just gave up and traded with them. It was never apart of the Swahili coast it was always controlled by Somalis and spoke Somali which is just as old if not older than Arabic.
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Zheng He's armada never had an idea of taking any land that they found... dont bullshit here
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+CrazySoon9413 somalis are natural born warriors we defended our land from portuguese invaders in the 16th century and liberated the swahili and arabian coast from them for a brief period and captured and killled 1 of vasco da gama sons 
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The Lusiad´s imortalized Da Gama lol
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De Gama and the Zheng He didn't do anything that anybody else has not done before. They only followed the coast. Columbus did something new, he dare to sail on the open ocean. This was unknown and unexplored. Not many people would do that. I is a gigantic acomplishment.
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I don´t think any smart people in Europe thought that world was flat. Maybe some really stupid people but the most of the scientists and even in church knew the world was round. There were much of the jewish and muslim litterature copied and distributed in Europe, and many maps of turkish Piri Reis and other explorers like Ibn Batuta, so the world knew what is the truth but the problem was they couldn't say it publicly, and they didn't know about the details, how big the world was...the proportions of the sea and land.
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+JEBIVJETAR PRCOJEVIC Piri Reis map only was useful to Columbus because it shows america localization, that has nothing to do with Vasco da Gama route. None of those ancient maps had shown a connection between atlantic ocean and indian ocean. The route followed for Vasco da Gama was based on previous exploration on africa coast. The Portuguese started to explore the atlantic ocean in early 14 century (somewhere between 1325 and 1345) and after a lot of exploring near to africa they got the information that was a connection between oceans. Vasco Da gama was the first to survive by passing the Cape of Good Hope, in south Africa. Alot of previous explorers tried and failed paying with their lives. Muslim knowledge was important, because it taught to the portuguese about new techniques of sailing, orientation and cartography, but didn't teach them about any secret route to india. You're right about the belief of round earth.
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why would i like to be Columbus , guy who is blamed by entire world for discovering america , and making USA possible  ... 
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+Patrick Joseph Klocek idiot , you brought nationalist to power in yugoslavia in order to destroy comunism in yugoslavia , you brought us war , and than watched thousands of yugoslavs die on CNN . we ( ex -yugoslavs ) are united in only one thing we hate americans more than we hate eachother .
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+kerim zekovic Good lord, Kerim, do you really think Americans created Bosnian, Croatian, Albanian, Slovenian, and Serbian nationalists!?!?  Gavrilo Princip was a Serbia nationalist in 1914.  The Americans had nothing to do with that!  Tito simply suppressed Yugoslav nationalism for 30 years.  Once Tito died, it was all going to bubble back to the surface and it did.  It is a tragedy of Europe that Yugoslavs weren't able to peacefully dissolve their state the way the Czechoslovaks did and the way the English and Scottish were willing to do just weeks ago.  But don't blame it on the Americans.  
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Is there not a theory that Zheng He landed in western South America?
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Age of Empires III?
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To you folks that are defending Europeans colonizing, saying that if other empires around the world had the technology to conquer countries overseas then then they would. Just have a look at Zheng He's armada which could rival all of Europe combined, they didn't go off on large conquest.
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I'm pretty sure a 400 foot wooden ship wouldn't be seaworthy. It might work in coastal waters but it would flex too much on the open sea. Also it's generally accepted among the scientific community that the main reason China slipped behind Europe technologically was because they produced fine china. They had no need to use glass. To them it was merely a curiosity. Whereas it was a cheap alternative to porcelain for Europeans. The use of glass led to hundreds of new products, the discovery of chemistry and the periodic table. Like the soon to end period of European/white "supremacy" it's a product of lucky accidents rather than any kind of intellectual superiority. It's also worth noting that the Chinese culture values conformity more whereas the European culture values individualism more. Which is possibly why they discovered so many things but never developed them to the extent Europe did.
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Simple Vasco da Gama the creator of the modern trade, besides the Spanish, British, French and Dutch, always came after the pioneer nation of discoveries, Portugal. 
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What does he mean by "Scrappy little Portugal"?
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+Siddiq Ismail Eastern Pakistanis are related to us, western Pakistanis(Pashtuns-Balochs) are East Iranian people related to Afghans and Iranians. Pakistani separated on pretext of Muslim majority otherwise there is no difference. Their national language Urdu is not native to Pakistan but Urdu originally from plains of Ganges-Yamuna which sounds same as Hindi but written in Arabic script.
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I would definitely be the administrator because you get to control the people who leave the legacies and the daring captains.
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Fav qoute: "Columbus you have to sit in the polka dot corner..." XD
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Many of these comments are biased. But they do have historical truth.
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Colombus did some terrible things in the West Indies..... that said he still had both his balls.
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John, when you said red corner, and then refer to Zheng He, and he was Chinese, was that a joke on communism? 
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I'll keep My Nuts and choose De Gama
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Lief Eriksson is my choice.
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Jflem and the WHAPstars would like to be like Columbus because we want to have a lasting impact on the world. We watch your videos all the time. Keep up the good work, John! 
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De Gama brought diseases to the native amazon. Columbus is an idiot. The Vikings attacked the native americans for being native americans but lost the battle then went back to europe with 0 treasure. Zheng Ha had a huge fucking fleet and can easily destroy a continent and went to the unknown waters without balls. I would join Zheng Ha`s fleet!!
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turn on captions its much funnier that way
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haha spain was the greatest power in europe... yeah right
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I'd want to be Zheng He. He hurt the least number of people. Also, he wasn't a Christian. (But that's really just a side note since he was still a monotheist.)
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+十八画生 So... he was one of those guys that blended in Islamic beliefs with their own native religion?
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Team Zhang He! ....Just kidding. I only like him because he visited Indonesia, even though the idea of a nation-state called Indonesia wasn't exists back then.
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Lol, Zheng He is too fucking kind and friendly compared to the Dutch
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A retired British submarine commander named Gavin Menzies has written 2 books about the exploits and marine exploration of both the Portuguese & Zheng he's Treasure Fleets simply called; 1421 & 1434. These 2 books expand greatly on the topic covered in this video. In these books he suggests that the 7 voyages of Zheng he's Fleet were also an attempted to physically map the world. It is also suggested that Columbus may have had a copy of a Chinese made map of the Caribbean given to Portuguese sailors (so they would pay tribute to China) and that that a copy of the map was subsequently stolen by Columbus' brother Bartholomew who was working for the Portuguese navy. Why did Columbus call the Caribbean the West Indies if he thought he had reached India? A plausible explanation might be because the title on the copy of the Chinese map given to Columbus may have read Xi Yin Di in Chinese. Xi means west. Yin is the opposite of yang (yin and yang). Yang is also Chinese for the Pacific Ocean so yin may represent the ocean opposite the Pacific which is the Atlantic Ocean. The Atlantic at that time was known by Chinese, Muslim and European sailors alike as the Great Western Ocean. And finally the Chinese word Di means map. It is entirely plausible that the name West Indies was the literal translation from the Chinese Xi Yin Di meaning Western Ocean map or the map of the other side of the world. The rest is history.
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Like if you saw the Skyward Sword. 
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Also, Columbus was working for the Portuguese
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Did anyone notice the master sword in the thought bubble?
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Oh yeah, first thing I saw ^u^b
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please do Australian world history! 
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So curious fact: the Line of Demarcation is the reason why the Western Australian border is where it is. The British only initially claimed the eastern part of Australia as the west was in Portugal's zone and they were an ally (up until the great earthquake of 1777 when they ceased to be as important).
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Portugal did colonize Bangladesh Myanmar and Bombay
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2:34 - Meters motherfucker, do you use them?
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No, he is American
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Along the way, on the outgoing voyage, Gama's fleet opened contact with the East African gold trading port of Sofala, and reduced the sultanate of Kilwa to tribute, extracting a substantial sum of gold. On reaching India in October 1502, Gama's fleet set about capturing any Arab vessel he came across in Indian waters, most notoriously the Miri, a pilgrim ship from Mecca, whose passengers he had massacred in open water.[24] He then appeared before Calicut, demanding redress for the treatment meted out to Cabral. While the Zamorin was willing to sign a new treaty,[25] Da Gama made a preposterous call to the Hindu king to expel all Muslims from Calicut before beginning negotiations, which was naturally turned down. The Portuguese fleet then bombarded the city for nearly two days from the sea shore, severely damaging the unfortified city. He also captured several rice vessels and barbarously cut off the crew's hands, ears and noses, dispatching them with an insulting note to the Zamorin.[26] A depiction of da Gama's fleet (from the Livro das Armadas). The violent treatment meted out by da Gama quickly brought trade along the Malabar Coast of India, upon which Calicut depended, to a standstill. But the Zamorin nonetheless refused to submit to Portuguese terms, and even ventured to hire a fleet of strong warships to challenge da Gama's armada (which da Gama managed to defeat in a naval battle before Calicut harbor). Da Gama loaded up with spices at Cochin and Cannanore, small nearby kingdoms, half-vassal and half-at-war with the Zamorin, whose alliances had been secured by prior Portuguese fleets. The 4th armada left India in early 1503. Da Gama left behind a small squadron of caravels, under the command of his uncle, Vicente Sodré, to patrol the Indian coast, continue harassing Calicut shipping and protect the Portuguese factories at Cochin and Cannanore from the Zamorin's inevitable reprisals.
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As a Puerto Rican  raised in Old PR, I think the Chinese had it right, Might at the time was right. As for Cristobal Colon(in Spanish), he screwed us mighty, The Conquistadores were brutal bastards, our Natives were decimated either in revolts or by killing all the men in a village and raping all the women. Oh well this is the prize for me to have a kindle fire..lol
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Am I the only one that loves his humor...? He always puts a fun side to learning History that I enjoy. <3
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Is no one going to mention the fact that they are learning about history from John Green?!
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While He may have seen the most funny hats and De Gama may have conquered the most funny hats, I think Columbus may have been the best mariner because his efforts LED to the most funny hats. 
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Vasco da Gama rules !!!
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Link master sword at 2:58 xD
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2:59 Mr. Green, Mr Green! How much was that Master Sword over there by the box? And why did the Chinese have it?
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his name is Vasco da Gama and not de Gama
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How did they measure speed on a boat? I'm curious.
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+Filipe Sampaio Araújo  Oh yeah, I remember something like this. thanks =)
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+Filipe Sampaio Araújo Hence why we still use the term to this day. 
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Hey, reduce your speed. That's too fast to be able to catch the points.
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0:43. Subtitles. Comment on what YOU see.
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The Kingdom of Prestor John was mentioned in legend as being located somewhere in Asia, possibly India.  This video is in fact the first time I've ever heard of Prestor John being in Africa.
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I would be Vasco De Gama.
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This video makes me proud for being Portuguese.
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how dare you call dr zoidberg an idiot!
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Gotta love playing the Ming in Europa Universalis 4
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+vadas pikas yeah, if russia gets time of troubles, you can take them over in a few wars.  I once did a world conquest as Lithuania, i can give you some pictures if you want
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i did it myself:D got all the russia  and half of japan just becouse;D
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that's a tough one actually, zheng he actually did something but every fucking 1st grader in the U.S. know who Columbus is AND he has his own holiday!  
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Africa and America LOVES CHINA, UP, UP, UP WITH BRICS NATIONS AND FUCK ANGLONAZI YANKEE DEVIL EMPIRE!!
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i want to be like zheng-he ... but with balls.. :P
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I like the way you say that he loose both testicles, like they where a toy car, that one would bring to the beach, on holiday when one was maybe 5/6/7 years of age at the time, and suddenly, being a child, you would go off to explore and realizes that you left the toy down without thinking and now it is gone. Honestly I love the videos. Keep up the good work. 
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Who gives a fuck about de or da. What matters is that people know what happened in history
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+Afonso Goncalves And who did the things that happened in history. Yeah. Might as well call him Boso the Pope, what does it matter?
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I just want to dress up in a bear costume and shit on your chest.  Call me strange but in my culture, this is seen as a clean and healthy pursuit.
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Run! A comment war's a-brewin'!
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By the time columbus reach america the portuguese had already disvovered brazil. Bullshit video
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The mythical '400ft Chinese Treasure Ships' never existed and the fleet was travelling  along trade routes that had seen heavy use over the previous 2,000 years: http://h-net.msu.edu/cgi-bin/logbrowse.pl?trx=vx&list=H-World&month=1108&week=a&msg=S%2BQ0aVfAEembHaVhcr81KQ But Green isn;t one to let minor details like 'facts' get in the way of his blinkered anti-Western revisionist fantasy.
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A couple mistakes that u say: A.great wall was built in qing dynasty B.zheng he actual name is Zheng ho
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+David Liu Manchus added more territory in China doubling the size of China.
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Nothing else, you wanna add something shifu.
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I would rather be like David Tennant. 
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Portuguese were equivalent to barbarians where ever they went on India's coast they brought destruction. Even the little kids were persecuted for chanting Hindu verses during games and dead bodies were too not spared from Portuguese brutality as banned cremation too. 
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+Nanaka GN abe gadhe ki aulaad, akhir kehna kya chahta hai.
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the portuguese savages went round the world pillaging non white european lands when they reached the horn of africa they met furious warriors 
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Neighbour Spain? I thought Spain did not exist at the time... And Isabella of Spain?
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is that the master sword from legend of zelda at 3:00?
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Just saying columbus was portuguese he was a spy and the brother of the portuguese king his mission was to trick spain to go west his real name was goncalves zarco it has been proven his notes were all in portuguese he had a portuguese wife and son all of his paintings he looks exactly like the portuguese king brother the one in italy was painted by a artist that never saw columbus (goncalves zarcos) there many more proof that indicated that columbus was portuguese
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I will not discuss who was the most important, but I would want to point out a grat historical error: henry the navigator was dead when vasco da gama was a child, 38 years before the arrival of vasco da gama in calecut, so in no way he could had been is protegée.
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You're right, João II was his sponsor. The Infante D. Henrique did send Gil Eanes and Alvise Ca' da Mosto; everyone from Diogo Cão (who actually did most of the exploring of Africa's east coast) on was under João II or Manoel I. 
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Racist against the portuguese...
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They can say what they want doesn't matter!we are becoming a immoral nation ! Viva Portugal
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columbus history is wrong beacuse columbus was looking for india not indonesia when he found america thats why people are called indians ...correct it 
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Can you make a video on Ivan the terrible or Ivan IV?
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Ahhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh
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Curious how America is presented as a land known by everyone, and at the same time, free of claim. Columbus was an EXPLORER who made his journey against the odds whereas Zheng He and da Gamma were skilled MERCHANTS with more or less ships and crew that made ludicrous business in an already existent market.  Signed: The inventor of gold's formula that doesn't use it.
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Da Gama also made his journey against the odds, though... His crew mutinied and wanted to return to Portugal. Da Gama cut off three people's heads and hung them on a mast, then threw the pilot, the navigator and all their tools overboard and basically said, "I'm the one who's running this bitch, come with me if you want to live." And he made it to India that way.  Then when some of his men were seized in Calicut by Muslim traders, he seized some Muslims in return, exchanged the captives, then lit up the city with his cannons. That started a war between the Portuguese and the Muslims in the Indian Ocean.  On the way back, da Gama's brother Paulo died. He stopped to bury his brother Natal and later found his own way back to Portugal.  Pretty impressive when you think about it. I think of Columbus as a GAMBLER (who was also pretty arrogant), Zheng He as a MERCHANT, and da Gama as a SOLDIER. If I had to rank them, I would put da Gama first for being a goddamn crazy person, followed by Zheng He, because he was very good at what he did, and Columbus last, because Columbus was an asshole. If you lie, brag, and refuse to leave the ship's hold until the goddamn queen of Spain comes and asks you to come out, I have no respect for you. Queen Isabel was a busy person. 
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