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Columbus, de Gama, and Zheng He! 15th Century Mariners. Crash Course: World History #21

by CrashCourse • 1,048,799 views

In which John Green teaches you about the beginning of the so-called Age of Discovery. You've probably heard of Christopher Columbus, who "discovered" America in 1492, but what about Vasco da Gama?...

Age Of Empire alredy learn me this xD miss the game.....
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+Rude Wolf I guess Age Of Empires didn't "learn" you english...
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+Martin Ledermann Sid Meier's Civilization series is pretty good also. Maybe 2nd place but it is good.
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But the vikings was the first to european to discover americas 500 years before coloumbus C:
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+Benxx Fires Coffe got it's name from the region of Kaffa,Ethiopioa,Africa.
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+12ze34 Yes, I understand this now. I was misinformed, sorry.
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+Ana Isabel Portugal is little, its empire wasnt. Its the reason why its the 5/6th most spoken language in the world
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Zheng He based his work on an extensive knowledge of the trading routes and a prowess of governance, travelled the world as a means not to conquer, but to connect. Sure he wasn't innovative, at least not in the way de Gama and Columbus were, but he expanded and reconciled the ways in which we view the world in a way that I have the most respect for.
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Hi +CrashCourse  I am wondering, you should make social history videos. I think it's important how people lived in the past. Yes it's boring compared to history of warfare and general human world history but you have a great sense of humour to make it interesting. Also I believe that it's important to understand how people think in the past and what their norms are. Knowing our ancestors lived differently it would be interesting to see and compare on how they lived in the past and how we live today. Maybe mentioned how technologies improved our daily lives? Thank you. Regards, Kenneth
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Historical fact, Christopher Columbus enjoyed raping 9 year old girls as did many of the members of his crew. They would cut the hands off of natives for no crime whatsoever, they would then force the natives to wear their severed hands around their necks. This served as a warning to other natives, to do as you were told and to submit to power. This is the legacy of Christopher Columbus, this is the truth.
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+ismary jimenez Those were in central america. Columbus met a completely different group, one that didn't even know what weapons were. http://indiancountrytodaymedianetwork.com/2013/10/14/8-myths-and-atrocities-about-christopher-columbus-and-columbus-day-151653
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THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE FORCED EUROPEANS TO FIND A NEW WAY TO ASIA BY CONQUERING CONSTANTINOPLE!!
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+Søren S Constantinople was a trade city between asia. And Europe. It was 2/3 of asian silk or spices or other asian goods came to Constantinople and send it to Europe. Not all like 2/3 of the goods. And the wealth of Europe was in danger so Christopher Columbus was going all over Europe. And no one agreed until they came to Spanish. And they didn't agreed for 7 years. But then they had tk agree because their debt was going so high.
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At the time of Zheng He Chinese have mastered that technique of building giant ships other countries cannot achieve. Then why China kept losing navel warfare with British and French in 19th centuries?
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+creepermachine9000 The first Opium War was in 1840, and British had been an industrial power
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+creepermachine9000 at time of zheng he ,China was in MIng dynasty. the dynasty after ming, which is Qing, is the last feudal dynasty pf China. Qing is a pretty lame dynasty in its later period
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Just wandering, for an alternate history experiment.... what if Zheng He discovered Australia?
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To you folks that are defending Europeans colonizing, saying that if other empires around the world had the technology to conquer countries overseas then then they would. Just have a look at Zheng He's armada which could rival all of Europe combined, they didn't go off on large conquest.
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+Christian Nava I agree with you Christian Nava.
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The Wall began construction around 200 BC. The majority of today's wall was built in the Ming era.
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Such ignorance! You talk about "beginning" of the Age of Discovery and you only talk about Vasco da Gama?  After the conquest of Ceuta in 1415 (which cut the slave trade of Europeans in those areas) the Age of Discovery began for the Portuguese. Vasco da Gama reached India in 1498. It was several years of exploration and learning. Not to talk about Pedro Álvares Cabral, the one that reached Brasil. Too much information not told, most of it before Vasco da Gama. "Scrappy little Portugal" is just idiotic. Portugal has the oldest frontiers as a country in Europe. Before Spain existed as a unified country. I almost bet the info you got was from wikipedia or less. I know you are u.s.american but still... Columbus was Portuguese trained. He went to Lisbon in 1476 and remained there for several years, seeking the support of the Portuguese king and gathering nautical and geographic intelligence from the returning sailors. He even married a Portuguese woman; obtained navigation charts and related information from his father-in-law, >>>Bartholomew Perestrelo<<<, who was the governor of the island of Porto Santo in Madeira (just an island we discovered). You don't even talk the why we went to India by that route and the importance of that maritime route. Your words are well suited for you "if you are not an expert in something do not pretend to be an expert in something".
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The BIGGEST mistake that done by Chinese(Ming Dynasty) during that period of time was not conquering the world while we can...I mean fuck we invented Gunpowder, compass and many others things that surpass the rest of the world for decades or even centuries. Instead of killing the natives, raping the local women, looting all the treasures and natural resources and colonising anywhere we went, forcibly install our language and philosophy to the local population while sailing bon voyage around the world we went everywhere and make friends with EVERY FUCKING ONE !!! Heck imagine what happens if Chinese did the exact same things that the British, Spanish, Portuguese and Dutch done during this age of discovery... We were too kind and civilized ... I blame Confusionism and Buddhism in this matter.... Because of him now we Chinese have to face the shame and humiliation that are avoidable since the early mid 19th century cause by the western Europeans and fucking Japs !
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He's a chinophile man, no point reasoning with him. Especially when he doesn't know that the mongols weren't chinese.
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De Gamo had a beard, obvious winner!
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And he died having testicles
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Vasco Da Gama kills alot of muslim merchant and destroy alot of muslim traders ship especially in Indian Ocean and Southeast Asia. Portugal also destroy many muslim kingdom such as Malacca Sultanate etc
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Mmm, Spain was already the leading power in Europe before the New World's resources had a significant impact. One could say that, altogether with the colonization of the new world, the other events (After the unification of Castile and Aragon and the reconquest of Granada) that made Spain the top power were the Italian Wars and the Habpsburg heritage through Charles the Vth, both of which were achieved up to the 1520s, that is before even the conquests of the Aztecs or the Incas were conducted or before any significant base of power and trade could be established. The Spanish Kingoms were largely ignored by central european powers because they were focused on their southern front (aka, the muslims) and also because they were divided and were often rivals. But when there were no more moors to conquer, they turned their attention to Europe, and the 2 major kingdoms in the peninsula united, creating a strong competitor in the European theatre, and let's not mention they later inherited the Burgundian territories and became rulers of the HRE,  and all that would had happened even if the discovery of America had not happened.  To be honest, the wealth of the Americas mostly contributed to inflation problems and to encourage the rulers of spain into getting involved into costly and pointless conflicts...
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+· HigoChumbo · I know a lot of portuguese people, some are friends and some not so much, but its easy to see that portuguese people have a very similar way of life, same religion a language witch for my expirience can be understood without even learning it and vice versa... they are really like sisters and I sure would be happy if they had united back then, or actually stood united and I sure would be happy to see a united iberian peninsula.
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Zheng he is still the best
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Columbus didn't discover America in 1492; that's when America discovered white people
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Wow, so deep, so edgy. People will always want power, saying it's only white people is ignorant.
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I start watching this to study for history midterms realize halfway thru tht it doesnt have all the info i need yet continue watching it cuz its interesting and awesome. 😀
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as cool as it is to think that Zheng-he had epic mecha flagships, from an engineering standpoint those things would be damn near impossible to take on rougher seas. They found the rudder for one of those supposed flagships and it was a rudder sized for a ship of about 60m (which was average ship for the Western countries) instead of the supposed legendary 180m ships that Zheng-he might have had. Shame on you, John! I expected you to mention that.
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+Some Guy somewhere By 'huge' you mean significantly smaller than the flagship of Henry V, laid down in 1416? http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grace_Dieu_%28ship%29
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they all wanted to search India bcause they were crazy for the spices that we sell in return of GOLD. we Indian were very rich and powerful at that time, we had KOHINOOR diamond.. which later stolen by outsiders !
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De Gama and the Zheng He didn't do anything that anybody else has not done before. They only followed the coast. Columbus did something new, he dare to sail on the open ocean. This was unknown and unexplored. Not many people would do that. I is a gigantic acomplishment.
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+JEBIVJETAR PRCOJEVIC Piri Reis map only was useful to Columbus because it shows america localization, that has nothing to do with Vasco da Gama route. None of those ancient maps had shown a connection between atlantic ocean and indian ocean. The route followed for Vasco da Gama was based on previous exploration on africa coast. The Portuguese started to explore the atlantic ocean in early 14 century (somewhere between 1325 and 1345) and after a lot of exploring near to africa they got the information that was a connection between oceans. Vasco Da gama was the first to survive by passing the Cape of Good Hope, in south Africa. Alot of previous explorers tried and failed paying with their lives. Muslim knowledge was important, because it taught to the portuguese about new techniques of sailing, orientation and cartography, but didn't teach them about any secret route to india. You're right about the belief of round earth.
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+JEBIVJETAR PRCOJEVIC Thats a huge fail since we Portuguese went almost to Brasil to follow a current that would lead us to India. Some theories say that we already knew of the existence of the Americas before Colombus since we sailed so close to the coast of Brasil and because our King said to Columbus that the size of the world was far greater.
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turn on captions its much funnier that way
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yeah, you know what "China" means in Chinese ? "Middle Earth". Torkien would say, "What ?!!!"
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technically it's "middle country" or state, whatever you want to translate 国 into, anyway it's not earth
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Waitasec, NOW it's truly world history? Where's the segment about the great ancient civilizations of North and South America?
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The Lusiad´s imortalized Da Gama lol
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Spain was just the most powerful Maritiman force in 16th and 17th cuz Portugal lost the king and the Spanish kings (3) started governate it , so all the colonies and the largest maritime territory in world, from Portugal, started to belong to them for that period, they didn't did anything.
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Along the way, on the outgoing voyage, Gama's fleet opened contact with the East African gold trading port of Sofala, and reduced the sultanate of Kilwa to tribute, extracting a substantial sum of gold. On reaching India in October 1502, Gama's fleet set about capturing any Arab vessel he came across in Indian waters, most notoriously the Miri, a pilgrim ship from Mecca, whose passengers he had massacred in open water.[24] He then appeared before Calicut, demanding redress for the treatment meted out to Cabral. While the Zamorin was willing to sign a new treaty,[25] Da Gama made a preposterous call to the Hindu king to expel all Muslims from Calicut before beginning negotiations, which was naturally turned down. The Portuguese fleet then bombarded the city for nearly two days from the sea shore, severely damaging the unfortified city. He also captured several rice vessels and barbarously cut off the crew's hands, ears and noses, dispatching them with an insulting note to the Zamorin.[26] A depiction of da Gama's fleet (from the Livro das Armadas). The violent treatment meted out by da Gama quickly brought trade along the Malabar Coast of India, upon which Calicut depended, to a standstill. But the Zamorin nonetheless refused to submit to Portuguese terms, and even ventured to hire a fleet of strong warships to challenge da Gama's armada (which da Gama managed to defeat in a naval battle before Calicut harbor). Da Gama loaded up with spices at Cochin and Cannanore, small nearby kingdoms, half-vassal and half-at-war with the Zamorin, whose alliances had been secured by prior Portuguese fleets. The 4th armada left India in early 1503. Da Gama left behind a small squadron of caravels, under the command of his uncle, Vicente Sodré, to patrol the Indian coast, continue harassing Calicut shipping and protect the Portuguese factories at Cochin and Cannanore from the Zamorin's inevitable reprisals.
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+shameer aboobacker It´s difficult to accept what my country has become since then. Yes we are now peacefull and live a quiet life but sometimes we feel like an agressive dog that got its balls cut off. You should read about Afonso de Albuquerque and his battle at Ormuz.
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interesting thanks for sharing +Raul Pinto 
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How about America Vuspaci?
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cough ITS AMERIGO cough
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Oh sorry my bad, I meant to type Americo, as it's spelled in my country haha
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Is there not a theory that Zheng He landed in western South America?
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Age of Empires III?
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I'm pretty sure a 400 foot wooden ship wouldn't be seaworthy. It might work in coastal waters but it would flex too much on the open sea. Also it's generally accepted among the scientific community that the main reason China slipped behind Europe technologically was because they produced fine china. They had no need to use glass. To them it was merely a curiosity. Whereas it was a cheap alternative to porcelain for Europeans. The use of glass led to hundreds of new products, the discovery of chemistry and the periodic table. Like the soon to end period of European/white "supremacy" it's a product of lucky accidents rather than any kind of intellectual superiority. It's also worth noting that the Chinese culture values conformity more whereas the European culture values individualism more. Which is possibly why they discovered so many things but never developed them to the extent Europe did.
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So curious fact: the Line of Demarcation is the reason why the Western Australian border is where it is. The British only initially claimed the eastern part of Australia as the west was in Portugal's zone and they were an ally (up until the great earthquake of 1777 when they ceased to be as important).
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Fun and fascinating. Kenneth McIntyre's book " the Secret Discovery of Australia" discusses his theory that the Portugese circumnavigated Aus just after Vasco da Gama made it into the Indian Ocean. There are interesting maps, tantalising archaeological finds and the story of the mahogany ship wrecked on the west coast of Victoria. But I think his theory remains an outlier. The achievements of the Ming Dynasty exploits are particularly astonishing to those of us who grew up in a time when China was uncharacteristically weak.
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Immortality is not being good at what you do or being a good administrator like Zheng He or Vasco da Gama. Immortality is being controversial (history's bad boy or bad girl), so conroversial that people remember you. Colombus is a good example. So is Cleopatra. Sorry, Zheng He, nice guys finish last.
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haha spain was the greatest power in europe... yeah right
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+notice me Miyazaki sempai first of all I talked about tthe 15th century. 1500 to 1800 is not the 15th century. Second in the war you claimed the portuguese might was weaken after the battle of Alcacer quibir
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+João Viegas sooo ? when did spain loose a war 1vs1 against portugal like you claimed ?
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I would definitely be the administrator because you get to control the people who leave the legacies and the daring captains.
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Clare Cortez Shared on Google+ · 6 days ago
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I still don't see Columbus as all that great. The Americas are rather long, and if you sail from Spain west, then you'll probably hit them eventually. I think he was dumb because he used maps that were out of date, even when he was alive.
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Colombus did some terrible things in the West Indies..... that said he still had both his balls.
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Jflem and the WHAPstars would like to be like Columbus because we want to have a lasting impact on the world. We watch your videos all the time. Keep up the good work, John! 
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As a descendant of Leif Ericson I still have little respect for that man [Columbus]
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This video gave me goosebumps.
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Lief Eriksson is my choice.
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John, when you said red corner, and then refer to Zheng He, and he was Chinese, was that a joke on communism? 
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Hey, reduce your speed. That's too fast to be able to catch the points.
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"Which meant that christian crusading spirit was quite strong there presumably because muslims had brought so much stability and prosperity to the region". Only if you don't take into account that the capture of Ceuta in Morocco in 1415 was in part meant to fight Granadine and North African pirates who in some cases plundered the Iberian coastline all the way till northern Spain ever since the start of the Reconquista. For this reason Portugal has in fact the oldest operating navy in the world. "Vasco da Gama was the first of Henry's protégés to make it around Africa and into the Indian Ocean". Prince Henry died in 1460 and Vasco da Gama was born in 1469.
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Many of these comments are biased. But they do have historical truth.
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I would want to be like Zheng!
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Good video, but it would have been cool if you you mentioned the the Azores, Canaries, etc. That paved the way for transatlantic trade.
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The Portuguese tried to capture Mogadishu but they were pushed back. Mogadishu is truly a historic place Ibn battuta travelled there at its height and Zheng he ,even tried to take over but just gave up and traded with them. It was never apart of the Swahili coast it was always controlled by Somalis and spoke Somali which is just as old if not older than Arabic.
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Zheng He's armada never had an idea of taking any land that they found... dont bullshit here
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+CrazySoon9413 somalis are natural born warriors we defended our land from portuguese invaders in the 16th century and liberated the swahili and arabian coast from them for a brief period and captured and killled 1 of vasco da gama sons 
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please do Australian world history! 
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Did anyone notice the master sword in the thought bubble?
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Oh yeah, first thing I saw ^u^b
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Probably Zheng He, to be honest. Seems the least evil.
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Vasco da Gama rules !!!
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Also, Columbus was working for the Portuguese
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So ignorant people we can find in internet.. doesnt know whats talking about, at least about Portuguese (not portugese) empire, and put here videos to mistake the people. Bravo!
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I'm still pretty puzzled. The Portugese robbed the Porteges of their cartaz so they could trade with Portugese? Did i get it right?
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I'd rather be Columbus!
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Yeah.. more on Australia.. but it might only take you about 15 seconds.. on second thought you can leave us as an Annex. Keep up the good work! 
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All of your videos are awesome! Can you make one for the Qing Dynasty?
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7:21 may be my favorite John Green moment ever.
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How did they measure speed on a boat? I'm curious.
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+Filipe Sampaio Araújo  Oh yeah, I remember something like this. thanks =)
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+Filipe Sampaio Araújo Hence why we still use the term to this day. 
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Portugal did colonize Bangladesh Myanmar and Bombay
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Zheng He all the way I'd rather be remembered as smart by a few, than remembered by all for being a fool.
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I would definitely want to be Zheng He. He was, as John said, a smart administrator with excellent sailing skills.
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Team Zhang He! ....Just kidding. I only like him because he visited Indonesia, even though the idea of a nation-state called Indonesia wasn't exists back then.
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Lol, Zheng He is too fucking kind and friendly compared to the Dutch
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What is general anistesia? Do I want to know?
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While He may have seen the most funny hats and De Gama may have conquered the most funny hats, I think Columbus may have been the best mariner because his efforts LED to the most funny hats. 
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The Kingdom of Prestor John was mentioned in legend as being located somewhere in Asia, possibly India.  This video is in fact the first time I've ever heard of Prestor John being in Africa.
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his name is Vasco da Gama and not de Gama
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2:59 Mr. Green, Mr Green! How much was that Master Sword over there by the box? And why did the Chinese have it?
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This video makes me proud for being Portuguese.
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0:43. Subtitles. Comment on what YOU see.
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I would be Vasco De Gama.
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I'd want to be Zheng He. He hurt the least number of people. Also, he wasn't a Christian. (But that's really just a side note since he was still a monotheist.)
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+十八画生 So... he was one of those guys that blended in Islamic beliefs with their own native religion?
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Africa and America LOVES CHINA, UP, UP, UP WITH BRICS NATIONS AND FUCK ANGLONAZI YANKEE DEVIL EMPIRE!!
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By the time columbus reach america the portuguese had already disvovered brazil. Bullshit video
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+Hugo Meireles of some weird movie you saw  in the tv I hope....
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I just want to dress up in a bear costume and shit on your chest.  Call me strange but in my culture, this is seen as a clean and healthy pursuit.
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Who gives a fuck about de or da. What matters is that people know what happened in history
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+Afonso Goncalves And who did the things that happened in history. Yeah. Might as well call him Boso the Pope, what does it matter?
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Gotta love playing the Ming in Europa Universalis 4
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+vadas pikas yeah, if russia gets time of troubles, you can take them over in a few wars.  I once did a world conquest as Lithuania, i can give you some pictures if you want
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i did it myself:D got all the russia  and half of japan just becouse;D
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Run! A comment war's a-brewin'!
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What does he mean by "Scrappy little Portugal"?
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+Deepak Sharma Is there any ethnic difference between Pakistanis and Indians, or is it just Islam and Hinduism?
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Neighbour Spain? I thought Spain did not exist at the time... And Isabella of Spain?
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the portuguese savages went round the world pillaging non white european lands when they reached the horn of africa they met furious warriors 
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De Gama brought diseases to the native amazon. Columbus is an idiot. The Vikings attacked the native americans for being native americans but lost the battle then went back to europe with 0 treasure. Zheng Ha had a huge fucking fleet and can easily destroy a continent and went to the unknown waters without balls. I would join Zheng Ha`s fleet!!
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+Deepak Sharma Another childish response from you. What else is new. 
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A couple mistakes that u say: A.great wall was built in qing dynasty B.zheng he actual name is Zheng ho
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Because of Chinese dialects mandarin - zheng he Cantonese - zheng hoe Hokkien - cheng ho
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