The Jacobites in Scotland part 4 of 4
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Uploaded on Jul 18, 2011
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In 1685 Charles II was succeeded by his Roman Catholic brother, James II and VII. He tried to impose religious tolerance of Roman Catholics and Protestant Dissenters, but antagonized many of the Anglican establishment by this action, as they were suspicious of Catholic power. Although these actions were widely unpopular, at first the majority of his subjects tolerated these acts because James was in his 50s and both of his daughters were committed Protestants. It seemed that James' reign would be short and a the throne would soon return to Protestant hands. In 1688 however James's young second wife Mary of Modena gave birth to a boy, Prince James who was promptly baptized a Roman Catholic. Baby James immediately supplanted his older half sisters as heir to the throne. Now the prospect of a Catholic dynasty on the English throne seemed all but certain.
The "Immortal Seven" invited James's daughter Mary and her husband William of Orange to depose James and jointly rule in his place. On 4 November 1688 William arrived at Torbay. The next day, James fled to France. In February 1689 the "Glorious Revolution" formally changed the monarch, but many Catholics, Episcopalians and Tory royalists still supported James as the constitutionally legitimate monarch.
Scotland was slow to accept William. William and Mary were proclaimed at Edinburgh on 11 April 1689, then had their coronation in London in May.
Nonetheless James supporters rallied and a civil war ensued which resulted in a victory for William. On 17 August 1691 William offered all Highland clans a pardon for their part in the Jacobite Uprising, provided that they took an oath of allegiance before 1 January 1692 in front of a magistrate. The Highland chiefs sent word to James, now in exile in France, asking for his permission to take this oath. James eventually authorised the chiefs to take the oath.
After the death of James II in 1701, the Jacobite claim to the thrones of Scotland and England was taken up by his only surviving legitimate son, James Francis Edward Stuart (1688--1766). His supporters proclaimed him James III of England and Ireland, and James VIII of Scotland. The French king Louis XIV and Pope Clement XI formally recognised the Catholic monarch as King James III & VIII. Later, James was called "the Old Pretender", to distinguish him from his son, Charles Edward Stuart (1720--1788), who became known as "the Young Pretender".
In 1708 James Stuart, the Old Pretender, sailed from Dunkirk with 6000 French troops in nearly 30 ships of the French navy but was thwarted by the Royal Navy.
Following the arrival from Hanover of George I in 1714, Tory Jacobites in England conspired to organise armed rebellions against the new Hanoverian government. They were indecisive and frightened by government arrests of their leaders. In Scotland 1715 was the time of the First Jacobite Rebellion which was a failure.
Such is the connection between 1745 and the rising in the Gaelic mindset, that the '45 is known as (Charles' Year) in Bliadhna Theàrlaich Scottish Gaelic.
Charles continued to believe that he could reclaim the kingdom and recalled that early in 1744 a small number of Scottish Highland clan chieftains had sent a message that they would rise if he arrived with as few as 3,000 French troops. His son, Charles landed with seven men of Moidart on the island of Eriskay in the Outer Hebrides on 2 August 1745.
The Scottish clans and their chieftains initially showed little enthusiasm about his arrival without troops or munitions (with Alexander MacDonald of Sleat and Norman MacLeod of MacLeod refusing even to meet with him), but Charles went on to Moidart and on 19 August 1745 raised the standard at Glenfinnan to lead the Second Jacobite Rising in his father's name. This attracted about 1,200 men, mostly of Clan MacDonald of Clan Ranald, Clan MacDonell of Glengarry, Clan MacDonald of Keppoch, and Clan Cameron. The Jacobite force marched south from Glenfinnan, increasing to almost 3,000 men, though two chieftains insisted on pledges of compensation before joining. Despite early successes, this too was a disaster and left Charles having to flee to the Isle of Skye amongst other places and eventually back to France.
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